U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Energy Intensity Indicators: Industrial Total Energy Consumption
The industrial sector comprises manufacturing and other non-manufacturing sectors not included in transportation or services. These non-manufacturing sectors are agriculture, forestry and fisheries, mining, and construction. Only in the manufacturing sector is data on energy use collected annually, although information on energy costs for the other sectors is available through Census data every five years. Figure I1, below, shows how industrial sector energy intensity has changed over time.
Results are presented based on total energy consumption for the period between 1985 and 2004.
- Activity: The top line in Figure I1 shows that industrial sector GDP has increased 64% since 1985.
- Energy Use: Energy use has increased slightly less than 12%.
- Energy Intensity Index: Energy intensity has declined by 19% since 1985, with most of this decline occuring since 1993.
- Changes due to factors unrelated to efficiency improvements: Other explanatory factors have also contributed to a decline in energy used since 1993. These factors have contributed to about an 16% decline in total industrial energy use.
Figure I1. Energy Use, Energy Intensity, Output and Structural Effects in the Industrial Sector, 1985-2004
The change resulting from other factors, shown in Figure I1, is a composite of two effects, the change in manufacturing as a fraction of total industrial output over time, and the changes (mostly shifts among industries) that have occurred over time within manufacturing. These components are shown in Figure I2, below. The line labeled "Relative Mfg Growth" indicates that manufacturing, which is more energy intensive than non-manufacturing, has grown relative to total industrial GDP, with most of that change occurring since 1995. This factor has added about 6% to energy use, most of this effect occurring after the recession in the early 1990's. The line labeled "Within Mfg Shifts" shows that the manufacturing industries that are less energy intensive have grown relative to those industries that are highly energy intensive, thus reducing the energy intensity of manufacturing as a whole. The effect of these shifts has been a reduction of industrial energy use of 21%.
Figure I2. Industrial Structure, 1985-2004