U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Bioenergy Technologies Office
Thermochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration
Fuels can be produced from bio-oils using processes similar to those found in a petroleum refinery, including hydrotreating and hydrocracking to create green gasoline, an alternative to alcohol-based ethanol fuels. Some types of bio-oils can even be fully integrated into petroleum refining stream and infrastructure.
The conversion of biomass derived syngas to products is typically an exothermic process, and Integrated Biorefineries can maximize their power efficiency by recovering heat. Biomass derived syngas produced from gasification is cleaned and conditioned to adjust the ratio of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Cleaned and conditioned syngas can then be converted to a variety of fuels or chemical products by catalytic or biological synthesis.