U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Building Technologies Office – Appliance & Equipment Standards
High-Intensity Discharge Lamps
This page presents information on test procedures, energy conservation standards, and rulemaking activities for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps.
HID lamps are electric-discharge lamps in which:
- The light-producing arc is stabilized by the arc tube wall temperature; and
- The arc tube wall loading is in excess of 3 watts (W)/centimeters squared (cm2), including such lamps that are mercury vapor, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium lamps.
Typical applications for these lamps are street and roadway lighting, area lighting such as parking lots and stadiums, industrial and commercial building interior lighting, commercial, industrial and residential security lighting, and landscape lighting. There are three HID lamp types: mercury vapor, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium.
- Mercury vapor lamps are an HID lamp in which the major portion of the light is produced by radiation from mercury typically operating at a partial vapor pressure in excess of 100,000 pascals (Pa) (approximately 1 standard atmosphere). It includes clear, phosphor-coated, and self-ballasted screw-base lamps.
- Metal halide lamps are an HID lamp in which the major portion of the light is produced by radiation of metal halides and their product of dissociation, possibly in combination with metallic vapors.
- High-pressure sodium lamps are an HID lamp in which radiation from sodium vapor produces the major portion of the light. This type of lamp typically operates at a partial pressure equal to or greater than 6,670 Pa (approximately 0.066 standard atmospheres) and includes clear and diffuse-coated lamps.
The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 amended the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 to add a part C to title III of EPCA establishing an energy conservation program for certain industrial equipment. (42 U.S.C. 6311–6317) The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Pub. L. No. 102–486, 106 Stat. 2776 also amended EPCA, and included amendments that expanded title III to include HID lamps. Specifically, EPACT amended section 346 of EPCA (42 U.S.C. 6317) to provide in paragraph (a) that the Secretary of Energy must prescribe testing requirements and energy conservation standards for those HID lamps which the Secretary determines that standards "would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and would result in significant energy savings." (42 U.S.C. 6317(a)(2))
DOE construes section 346(b) and related provisions as requiring it to: (1) determine preliminarily whether standards for HID lamps would be "technologically feasible and economically justified, and would result in significant energy savings;" and (2) if energy conservation standards appear to be warranted under these criteria, prescribe test procedures and conduct a rulemaking concerning such standards. During the standards rulemaking, DOE would decide whether, and at what level(s), to promulgate energy conservation standards. This decision would be based on in-depth consideration, with public participation, of the technological feasibility, economic justification, and energy savings of potential standard levels in the context of the criteria and procedures for prescribing new or amended standards established by section 325(o) and (p). (42 U.S.C. 6295(o)(p))
Energy Conservation Standards
Framework Document Public Meeting Information
For further information on how to submit or review public comments contact Ms. Brenda Edwards at (202) 586-2945 or email: Brenda.Edwards@ee.doe.gov.
Comments should clearly identify docket number EERE-2010-BT-STD-0043 and/or Regulation Identifier Number (RIN) 1904-AC36. The deadline for submitting comments has been extended and is now April 12, 2012.
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR)
NOPR Public Meeting
For further information on how to submit or review public comments, or view hard copies of the docket in the Resource Room, contact Ms. Brenda Edwards at (202) 586-2945 or email: Brenda.Edwards@ee.doe.gov.
Comments should clearly identify docket number EERE-2010-BT-TP-0044 and/or RIN 1904-AC37. The deadline for submitting comments is February 28, 2012.
DOE has issued a final determination tentatively concluding that energy conservation standards for certain high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are technologically feasible and economically justified and would likely result in significant energy savings. DOE's final determination triggers a rulemaking proceeding to establish test procedures and potential energy conservation standards for this equipment.
DOE issued its final determination on June 16, 2010. The associated notice was made available for public inspection at the Office of the Federal Register on June 30, 2010, and was published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2010.
This final determination follows a comment period related to the proposed determination. In both the proposed determination and the final determination DOE has made available a technical support document (TSD), which provides additional analysis in support of the determination.
Final Determination Concerning the Potential for Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps, Federal Register, 75 FR 37975, July 1, 2010
Technical Support Document
Analytical Spreadsheet Tools
DOE has tentatively determined that such standards for HID lamps are technologically feasible and economically justified, and would result in significant energy savings. Thus, DOE proposes to issue a positive determination. DOE has analyzed multiple energy-efficient HID substitutes for baseline lamps and has tentatively determined that it is technologically feasible to manufacture higher efficiency HID lamps because these lamps are currently commercially available.
DOE makes available for public comment a proposed determination document that informs interested parties of the analysis underlying this proposal, which examines the potential energy savings and the economic costs and benefits that could result from a future standard for HID lamps. In this document, DOE also announces the availability of a preliminary technical support document (TSD), which provides additional analysis in support of the determination.
Proposed Determination Concerning the Potential for Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps, April 27, 2010
Preliminary Technical Support Document
Analytical Spreadsheet Tools
DOE conducted previous analyses estimating the likely range of energy savings and economic benefits that would result from energy conservation standards for HID lamps, and prepared reports describing its analyses. DOE published these draft reports in June 2003 and December 2004, and made them available for public comment.
The reports made no recommendation concerning the determination that DOE should make.
High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Analysis of Potential Energy Savings, December 2004
Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis
National Energy Savings Analysis
Draft Framework for Determination Analysis of Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, June 2003
Related DOE Rulemakings
See this metal halide lamp fixture Web page for DOE rulemaking for energy conservation standards and test procedures for metal halide lamp fixtures.
Lighting Standards Project Manager