Automatic Commercial Ice Makers
Manufacturers have been required to comply with the Department of Energy's (DOE) energy conservation standards for certain automatic commercial ice makers since 2010. Automatic commercial ice makers make and harvest cube, flake, tube, and nugget ice. Ice makers are used in hotels, hospitals, schools, office buildings, supermarkets, and other facilities where foods and beverages are served or sold.
The current standard will save approximately 0.14 quads of energy and result in approximately $1.4 billion in energy bill savings for products shipped from 2010-2034. The standard will avoid about 7.4 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions of 1.5 million automobiles.
The U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE" or "the Department") is currently conducting a rulemaking to update the energy conservation standard for automatic commercial ice makers (ACIM). As part of this rulemaking, DOE carried out detailed energy modeling using the FREEZE simulation program ("FREEZE" or "the model") to verify and extrapolate the results of the reverse engineering process. FREEZE is an energy model that simulates the performance of both batch and continuous ice makers. It calculates thermal loads required to cool incoming water and freeze ice, and accounts for compressor power input based on detailed compressor performance information. During the NOPR analysis, DOE made several adjustments to the model’s calculations based on comments and available information. The key outputs of the model used in the rulemaking’s engineering analysis are presented in the technical support documents. See http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=EERE-2010-BT-STD-0037-0061.
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In order to facilitate additional review of the model and gather additional feedback and data from interested parties, DOE held a public meeting on June 19th, 2014 to discuss the use of the model in the engineering analysis. During this meeting, manufacturers expressed an interest in being able to input their own data parameters into the model in order to evaluate the model's results. To accommodate this request and in an effort to be open and transparent, the Department’s contractor is available to work with manufacturers, under non-disclosure agreement if necessary, who are interested in evaluating the model’s results and comparing its performance predictions with test data when calibrated and used for their specific ice maker designs. In addition, DOE will consider further adjustments to the model's calculations to the extent that data showing impacts of energy reductions associated with component upgrades can be provided with sufficient detail. Based on these model adjustments, DOE's analysis that will support the energy conservation standards for ACIM will be revaluated and these interim results may be presented to the public through a Notice of Data Availability (NODA) should DOE determine such action is warranted.
DOE published a notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for automatic commercial ice makers. 79 FR 33877 (June 13, 2014). For more information, please see the rulemaking page.
Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers
The following content summarizes the energy conservation standards for automatic commercial ice makers. The text is not an official reproduction of the Code of Federal Regulations and should not be used for legal research or citation.
The current standards for automatic commercial ice-making equipment cover maximum energy use and maximum condenser water use of cube ice machines with harvest rates between 50 and 2,500 lbs of ice per day. They do not apply to flake or nugget ice machines. Automatic commercial ice makers manufactured and distributed in commerce, as defined by 42 U.S.C. 6291(16), must meet the energy conservation standards specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 431.136, effective January 2010. This information is also available in the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.
Table 1. Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers
||Type of Cooling
lb ice/24 hours
|Maximum Energy Use
kWh/100 lb ice
|Maximum Condenser Water Use*
gal/100 lb ice
||7.80 - 0.0055H
||200 - 0.022H
|5.58 - 0.0011H
||200 - 0.022H
||200 - 0.022H
||10.26 - 0.0086H
||6.89 - 0.0011H
|Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor)
||8.85 - 0.0038H
|Remote Condensing and Remote Compressor
||8.85 - 0.0038H
||11.40 - 0.019H
||191 - 0.0315H
||191 - 0.0315H
||18.0 - 0.0469H
H Harvest rate in pounds per 24 hours.
* Water use is for the condenser only and does not include potable water used to make ice.
For further guidance or to submit questions related to the implementation of this standard, visit the Guidance and Frequently Asked Questions page.
Current Test Procedure
To determine compliance with DOE standards, manufacturers must follow the test procedures specified at 10 CFR 431.134 for automatic commercial ice makers manufactured or distributed into commerce. These are also in the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.
For further guidance or to submit questions related to the implementation of these test procedures, visit Guidance and Frequently Asked Questions.
Amended Test Procedure
DOE published amended test procedures for automatic commercial ice makers on January 11, 2012. Manufacturers must use the amended test procedures beginning January 7, 2013.
Test procedure waivers have not been issued for automatic commercial ice makers. For information about obtaining test procedure waivers, see 10 CFR 431 subpart V.
DOE's Office of Hearings and Appeals has not authorized exception relief for automatic commercial ice makers. For information about obtaining exception relief, see 10 CFR part 1003.
State Exemptions to Federal Preemption
DOE has not exempted any states from this energy conservation standard. States may petition DOE to exempt a state regulation from preemption by the federal energy conservation standard. States may also petition DOE to withdraw such exemptions. For details, see 10 CFR 431 subpart V or 10 CFR 431 subpart W.
Part A–1, "Certain Industrial Equipment," of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended, gives DOE authority to develop test procedures and promulgate energy conservation standards for automatic commercial ice makers. (42 U.S.C. 6311–6317)
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 amended EPCA and prescribed energy conservation standards and test procedures for certain cube type automatic commercial ice makers. EPCA also directs DOE to issue, by January 1, 2015, a final rule to determine whether amending the standards set by EPCA is technologically feasible and economically justified. In addition, EPCA granted DOE authority to set standards for additional types of automatic commercial ice makers. (42 U.S.C. 6313(d)). DOE is currently conducting a rulemaking concerning these amendments.
Helpful Links and Contact Information
To find tips and guidance for making your home, workplace, or vehicle more energy efficient visit EnergySaver.gov.
DOE supports the testing and verification of ENERGY STAR® products in close collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ENERGY STAR-qualified automatic commercial ice machines are on average 15 percent more energy efficient and 10 percent more water efficient than standard models.
For more information related to the regulation of this product, please email: