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Automatic Commercial Ice Makers

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Manufacturers have been required to comply with the Department of Energy's (DOE) energy conservation standards for certain automatic commercial ice makers since 2010. Automatic commercial ice makers make and harvest cube, flake, tube, and nugget ice. Ice makers are used in hotels, hospitals, schools, office buildings, supermarkets, and other facilities where foods and beverages are served or sold.

The current standard will save approximately 0.14 quads of energy and result in approximately $1.4 billion in energy bill savings for products shipped from 2010-2034. The standard will avoid about 7.4 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions of 1.5 million automobiles. 

On December 31, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE" or "the Department") completed a rulemaking to update the energy conservation standard for automatic commercial ice makers (ACIM). The new standards, with a compliance date of January 1, 2018, will save approximately 0.2 quads of energy and result in approximately $2 billion in energy bill savings for products shipped between 2018 and 2047. The standard will avoid about 11 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the electricity use of 1.5 million households.


Recent Updates | Standards | Test Procedures | Waiver, Exception, and Exemption Information | Statutory Authority | Historical Information | Contact Information


Recent Updates

DOE published a final rule regarding energy conservation standards for automatic commercial ice makers. 80 FR 4645 (January 28, 2015). For more information, please see the rulemaking page.


Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers

The following content summarizes the energy conservation standards for automatic commercial ice makers. The text is not an official reproduction of the Code of Federal Regulations and should not be used for legal research or citation.

Current Standard

The current standards for automatic commercial ice-making equipment cover maximum energy use and maximum condenser water use of cube ice machines with harvest rates between 50 and 2,500 lb of ice per day. They do not apply to flake or nugget ice machines. Automatic commercial ice makers manufactured and distributed in commerce, as defined by 42 U.S.C. 6291(16), must meet the energy conservation standards specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 431.136, effective January 2010. This information is also available in the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.

Table 1. Energy Conservation Standards for Cube Type Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Effective January 2010
Equipment Type Type of Cooling Harvest Rate
lb ice/24 hours
Maximum Energy Use
kWh/100 lb ice
Maximum Condenser Water Use*
gal/100 lb ice
Ice-Making Head Water <500 7.80 - 0.0055H 200 - 0.022H
5greater than equal to sign500
and <1,436
5.58 - 0.0011H 200 - 0.022H
greater than equal to sign1,436 4.0 200 - 0.022H
Air <450 10.26 - 0.0086H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign450 6.89 - 0.0011H Not Applicable
Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor) Air <1,000 8.85 - 0.0038H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign1,000 5.10 Not Applicable
Remote Condensing and Remote Compressor Air <934 8.85 - 0.0038H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign934 5.3 Not Applicable
Self-Contained Water <200 11.40 - 0.019H 191 - 0.0315H
greater than equal to sign200 7.60 191 - 0.0315H
Air <175 18.0 - 0.0469H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign175 9.80 Not Applicable

H Harvest rate in pounds per 24 hours.
* Water use is for the condenser only and does not include potable water used to make ice.

For further guidance or to submit questions related to the implementation of this standard, visit the Guidance and Frequently Asked Questions page.

Amended New Standards

Beginning in January, 2018, automatic commercial ice-making equipment producing cube ice with harvest rates between 50 and 2,500 lb of ice per day shall meet the amended energy consumption standards shown on Table 2. Standards shown on Table 2 for batch type ice-makers represent amendments to existing standards set for cube type ice makers, and new standards for cube type ice makers with expanded harvest capacities up to 4,000 pounds of ice per 24 hour period (lb ice/24 hours) and an explicit coverage of other types of batch machines, such as tube type ice makers.

Table 2. Energy Conservation Standards for Batch Type Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Effective January 2018
Equipment Type Type of Cooling Harvest Rate
lb ice/24 hours
Maximum Energy Use
kWh/100 lb ice*
Maximum Condenser Water Use
gal/100 lb ice**
Ice-Making Head Water <300 6.88 - 0.0055H 200 - 0.022H
greater than equal to sign300 and <850 5.80 - 0.00191H 200 - 0.022H
greater than equal to sign850 and <1,500
4.42 - 0.00028H 200 - 0.022H
greater than equal to sign1500 and <2,500 4.0 200 - 0.022H
greater than equal to sign2500 and <4,000 4.0 145
Ice-Making Head Air <300 10 - 0.01233H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign300 and <800 7.05 - 0.0025H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign800 and <1500 5.55 - 0.00063H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign1500 and <4,000 4.61 Not Applicable
Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor) Air greater than equal to sign50 and <1,0007.97 - 0.00342H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign1,000 and <4,000 4.55 Not Applicable
Remote Condensing and Remote Compressor Air <942 7.97 - 0.00342H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign942 and <4,000 4.75 Not Applicable
Self-Contained Water <200 9.5 - 0.019H 191 - 0.0315H
greater than equal to sign200 and <2,5005.7191 - 0.0315H
greater than equal to sign2500 and <4,000 5.7 112
Self-Contained Air <110 14.79 - 0.0469H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign110 and <200 12.42 - 0.02533H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign200 and <4,000 7.35 Not Applicable

*H = harvest rate in pounds per 24 hours, indicating the water or energy use for a given harvest rate. Source: 42 U.S.C. 6313(d)
** Water use is for the condenser only and does not include potable water used to make ice.

The December 2014 Final Rule provides new standards for continuous type ice-making machines, which were not previously currently covered by DOE’s existing standards. Beginning in January, 2018, each automatic commercial ice maker producing flake or nugget ice (and other ice produced by way of continuous processes) shall meet the energy consumption standards shown on Table 3.

Table 3. Energy Conservation Standards for Continuous Type Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Effective January 2018
Equipment Type Type of Cooling Harvest Rate
lb ice/24 hours
Maximum Energy Use
kWh/100 lb ice*
Maximum Condenser Water Use
gal/100 lb ice**
Ice-Making Head Water <801 6.48 - 0.00267H 180 - 0.0198H
greater than equal to sign801 and <2,500 4.34 180 - 0.0198H
greater than equal to sign2,500 and <4,000
4.34  130.5
Ice-Making Head Air <310 9.19 - 0.00629H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign310 and <820 8.23 - 0.0032H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign820 and <4,000 5.61 Not Applicable
Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor) Air <8009.7 - 0.0058H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign800 and <4,000 5.06 Not Applicable
Remote Condensing and Remote Compressor Air <800 9.9 - 0.0058H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign800 and <4,000 5.26 Not Applicable
Self-Contained Water <900 7.6 - 0.00302H 153 - 0.0252H
greater than equal to sign900 and <2,5004.88153 - 0.0252H
greater than equal to sign2500 and <4,000 4.88 90
Self-Contained Air <200 14.22 - 0.03H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign200 and <700 9.47 - 0.00624H Not Applicable
greater than equal to sign700 and <4,000 5.1 Not Applicable

*H = harvest rate in pounds per 24 hours, indicating the water or energy use for a given harvest rate. Source: 42 U.S.C. 6313(d)
** Water use is for the condenser only and does not include potable water used to make ice.

Test Procedure for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers

Current Test Procedure

To determine compliance with DOE standards, manufacturers must follow the test procedures specified at 10 CFR 431.134 for automatic commercial ice makers manufactured or distributed into commerce. These are also in the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.

For further guidance or to submit questions related to the implementation of these test procedures, visit Guidance and Frequently Asked Questions.

Amended Test Procedure

DOE published amended test procedures for automatic commercial ice makers on January 11, 2012. Manufacturers must use the amended test procedures beginning January 7, 2013.

Waivers, Exceptions, and Exemptions

Waivers

Test procedure waivers have not been issued for automatic commercial ice makers. For information about obtaining test procedure waivers, see 10 CFR 431 subpart V.

Exceptions

DOE's Office of Hearings and Appeals has not authorized exception relief for automatic commercial ice makers. For information about obtaining exception relief, see 10 CFR part 1003.

State Exemptions to Federal Preemption

DOE has not exempted any states from this energy conservation standard. States may petition DOE to exempt a state regulation from preemption by the federal energy conservation standard. States may also petition DOE to withdraw such exemptions. For details, see 10 CFR 431 subpart V or 10 CFR 431 subpart W.

Statutory Authority

Part A–1, "Certain Industrial Equipment," of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended, gives DOE authority to develop test procedures and promulgate energy conservation standards for automatic commercial ice makers. (42 U.S.C. 6311–6317)

Historical Information

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 amended EPCA and prescribed energy conservation standards and test procedures for certain cube type automatic commercial ice makers. EPCA also directs DOE to issue, by January 1, 2015, a final rule to determine whether amending the standards set by EPCA is technologically feasible and economically justified. In addition, EPCA granted DOE authority to set standards for additional types of automatic commercial ice makers. (42 U.S.C. 6313(d)). DOE completed a rulemaking concerning these amendments on December 31, 2014.

Helpful Links and Contact Information

Helpful Links

To find tips and guidance for making your home, workplace, or vehicle more energy efficient visit EnergySaver.gov.

DOE supports the testing and verification of ENERGY STAR® products in close collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ENERGY STAR-qualified automatic commercial ice machines are on average 15 percent more energy efficient and 10 percent more water efficient than standard models.

Contact information

For more information related to the regulation of this product, please email:


automatic_commercial_ice_makers@ee.doe.gov