The Department of Energy (DOE) has regulated the water consumption level of faucets since 1992. This standard covers kitchen faucets and kitchen replacement aerators, lavatory faucets and lavatory replacement aerators, and metering faucets. These faucets are used widely in residential and commercial settings.
The current standard will save approximately 0.9 quads of energy and result in approximately $25.2 billion in energy bill savings for products shipped from 1994-2013. The standard will avoid about 49.1 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions of about 9.6 million automobiles.
The Standards and Test Procedures for this product are related to Rulemaking for Plumbing Products Test Procedure.
Recent Updates | Standards | Test Procedures | Waiver, Exception, and Exemption Information | Statutory Authority | Historical Information | Contact Information
DOE published a final rule regarding test procedures for showerheads, faucets, water closets, urinals, and commercial prerinse spray valves. 78 FR 62970 (October 23, 2013). For more information, please see the rulemaking page.
Standards for Faucets
The following content summarizes the energy conservation standards for faucets. The text is not an official reproduction of the Code of Federal Regulations and should not be used for legal research or citation.
Faucets manufactured and distributed in commerce, as defined by 42 U.S.C. 6291 (16), on or after January 1, 1994, must meet the energy conservation standards specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 430.32(o).
Table 1. Water Conservation Standards for Faucets
|The table below shows the maximum flow rates for faucets, when measured at a flowing water pressure of 60 pounds per square inch (414 kilopascals). 10 CFR 430.32(o)
||Maximum flow rate (gpm (L/min)) or (gal/cycle (L/cycle))
||2.2 gpm (8.3 L/min)1,2
|Lavatory replacement aerators
||2.2 gpm (8.3 L/min)
||2.2 gpm (8.3 L/min)
|Kitchen replacement aerators
||2.2 gpm (8.3 L/min)
||0.25 gal/cycle (0.95 L/cycle)3,4
1 Sprayheads with independently-controlled orifices and manual controls. The maximum flow rate of each orifice that manually turns on or off shall not exceed the maximum flow rate for a lavatory faucet.
2 Sprayheads with collectively controlled orifices and manual controls. The maximum flow rate of a sprayhead that manually turns on or off shall be the product of (a) the maximum flow rate for a lavatory faucet and (b) the number of component lavatories (rim space of the lavatory in inches (millimeters) divided by 20 inches (508 millimeters)).
3 Sprayheads with independently controlled orifices and metered controls. The maximum flow rate of each orifice that delivers a preset volume of water before gradually shutting itself off shall not exceed the maximum flow rate for a metering faucet.
4 Sprayheads with collectively-controlled orifices and metered controls. The maximum flow rate of a sprayhead that delivers a preset volume of water before gradually shutting itself off shall be the product of (a) the maximum flow rate for a metering faucet and (b) the number of component lavatories (rim space of the lavatory in inches (millimeters) divided by 20 inches (508 millimeters)).
For further guidance or to submit questions related to the implementation of this standard, visit the Guidance and Frequently Asked Questions page.
Current Test Procedure
To determine compliance with DOE standards, manufacturers must follow the test procedures specified at 10 CFR Part 430, Subpart B, Appendix S for faucets as of September 14, 1998.
For further guidance or to submit questions related to the implementation of this test procedure, visit the Guidance and Frequently Asked Questions page.
Test procedure waivers have not been issued for faucets.
For information about obtaining test procedure waivers, see 10 CFR 430.27.
DOE's Office of Hearings and Appeals has not yet authorized any cases of exception relief for faucets.
For information about obtaining exception relief, see 10 CFR part 1003.
State Exemptions to Federal Pre-emption
DOE issued a final rule on December 22, 2010 that waived Federal pre-emption of any state regulation concerning the water use or water efficiency of faucets, showerheads, water closets and urinals, if such state regulation is more stringent than the Federal regulation for the same product. This action was taken in order to comply with a provision of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, which requires that DOE waive Federal pre-emption for these products if the corresponding ANSI/ASME water conservation standards for them have not been changed after a period of five consecutive years. (42 U.S.C. 6295(j)(3)(C) and 6295(k)(3)(C))
The current energy conservation standards for faucets are mandated by Part A, the "Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles" of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended. (42 U.S.C. 6291–6309) Faucets are treated as a covered product under Part A. (42 U.S.C. 6295(j))
Congress established the standards for showerheads, faucets, water closets, and urinals as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which amended EPCA. Congress based the conservation standards for these products, and the test procedures that would be required for rating them, on the existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers/American National Standards Institute (ASME/ANSI) standards for each respective group of products.
For faucets and showerheads, EPCA states that the conservation standards shall be those of ASME/ANSI A112.18.1M-1989 and that for water closets and urinals the standards shall be those of ASME/ANSI A112.19.6-1990, both of which DOE subsequently adopted into the Code of Federal Regulations.
In 1998, DOE issued a final rule that updated the test procedures for these products by adopting more recent versions of both ASME/ANSI standards, which are the versions in use by DOE today. They are A112.18.1M-1996 for faucets and showerheads, and A112.19.6-1995 for water closets and urinals. The water conservation standards in the revised ASME/ANSI standards remained the same.
Helpful Links and Contact Information
Find tips and guidance for making your home, workplace, or vehicle more energy efficient visit EnergySavers.gov.
For more information related to the regulation of this product, please email: