U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Building Technologies Office – Market-Based Programs

Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Demonstration Results

DOE shares the results of completed GATEWAY demonstration projects, publishing detailed reports that include analysis of data collected, projected energy savings, economic analyses, and user feedback. Report briefs summarize key findings in a quick-scan format. Both the reports and briefs are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

Completed Projects

Photo of a hotel guest room. A bed is along the left wall, a dresser with a television is along the right wall, and panels of curtains cover the windows along the back wall. In front of the curtains sits an armchair and a desk. Above the  curtains on the ceiling are two LED recessed downlights.


LED Recessed Downlights: Columbus, Ohio
At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation LuminairesTM-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code.
Case Study

Photo of a sidewalk at night with a bench in the middle and streetlights on either side.


Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting
The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications. (December 2013)
Pedestrian Lighting Report

Photo of a dark wall with three LED lights shining on it.


Dimming LEDs with Phase-Cut Dimmers: The Specifier's Process for Maximizing Success
This report reviews how phase-cut dimmers work, how LEDs differ from the incandescent lamps these dimmers were originally designed to control, and how those differences can lead to complications when attempting to dim LEDs. Providing both general guidance and step-by-step procedures for designing phase-controlled LED dimming on both new and existing projects—as well as real-world examples of how to use those procedures—the report aims to reduce the chance of experiencing compatibility-related problems and, if possible, ensure good dimming performance. (October 2013)
Dimming Report

Photo of a dark wall with three LED lights shining on it.


Color Maintenance of LEDs in Laboratory and Field Applications
The GATEWAY program summarized color shift data of LED lamps used in real-world applications as well as LED products monitored by the CALiPER program in a lab environment. LED color shift is a cause of early failure for some products, especially in applications such as museum lighting, where visual appearance is critical. The report discusses the metrics used for communicating color shift, provides guidance on how to monitor chromaticity and what to look for in manufacturer warranties, and reviews the physical changes shown to lead to color shift in some LED packages. (September 2013)
Color Maintenance Report

photo of a city street at night showing a maintenance crew checking a streetlight.


LED Street Lighting: Kansas City, Missouri
At nine sites in Kansas City, the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium evaluated nine different LED street lighting products and compared them to the high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires they replaced. This study illustrates many of the challenges involved in matching products to real-world applications, even under carefully maintained conditions. As a group, the LED products tended to be slightly more efficacious than their HPS counterparts, but a larger portion of the energy savings was achieved by reducing overall light levels and limiting spill light. (June 2013)
Kansas City Report
Kansas City Report Brief

Photo of a parking garage interior with an LED ceiling light fixture at center.


LED Parking Structure Lighting: Washington, DC
At the parking structure of the U.S. Department of Labor headquarters in Washington, DC, LED luminaires were installed in place of the incumbent high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires and evaluated for relative light quantity and performance. Results showed energy savings of 52% from the initial conversion of HPS to LED—which increased to 88% by using occupancy sensor controls—and simple payback periods of 6.5 and 4.9 years for retrofit and new construction scenarios, respectively. (March 2013)
Department of Labor Report
Department of Labor Report Brief

Photo of cars in a parking garage with an LED fixture on the ceiling above.


Occupancy Sensors in LED Parking Lot and Garage Applications: Early Experiences
The GATEWAY program summarized and compared experiences from field installations of occupancy sensor-controlled LED lighting at four separate sites: two parking structures and two parking lots. Occupancy sensor systems are gaining traction as an effective approach to reducing energy use, and can potentially enhance the savings from an already efficient lighting system. Several issues that influence savings need to be considered, however, as reflected by the broad range of outcomes from these installations. (October 2012)
Occupancy Sensor Report

Daytime photo of a bridge with cars on it, and a roadway light in the left foreground.


LED Roadway Lighting Feasibility Assessment: Golden Gate Bridge
The GATEWAY program conducted a technical feasibility assessment of replacing existing roadway lighting on San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. Although there does not currently appear to be a simple means to reduce maintenance and energy use while preserving the quality and quantity of illumination for this historic landmark, both custom LED retrofit kits and fully-integrated LED luminaires are among the options that should be considered. (September 2012)
Golden Gate Bridge Report

Photo of an urban road at night illuminated with roadway lights, with a city skyline in the background.


LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
At three sites in Philadelphia, the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium evaluated 10 different LED luminaires and compared them to the incumbent high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires. Most of the LED products had a higher rated luminous efficacy—and all of the LED products showed improved color rendering, had higher application efficacy, and drew less power—than their HPS counterparts. (September 2012)
Philadelphia Report
Philadelphia Report Brief

Photo of a post-top outdoor light along a walkway through a wooded park.


LED Post-Top Lighting: Central Park, New York City
Along paved walking trails in New York City's Central Park, LED post-top mounted luminaires from five different manufacturers were installed and evaluated against the existing metal halide luminaires. Energy savings ranged from 50% to 83% relative to the baseline luminaire, and issues concerning spacing, illuminance, distribution, and color quality highlighted important considerations when evaluating lighting performance in walkway applications. (September 2012)
Central Park Report
Central Park Report Brief

Photo of a street at night with cobrahead street lights on each side.


LED Roadway Lighting: Portland, Oregon
On a residential collector road in Portland, six different types of roadway luminaires were installed in side-by-side groupings and evaluated for initial performance: three LED, one induction, one ceramic metal halide, and one baseline high-pressure sodium. While the overall performance of the alternative luminaires was generally better than the baseline luminaire, cost remains a significant barrier to widespread adoption. (June 2012—Revised August 2012)
Cully Boulevard ReportPDF
Cully Boulevard Report Brief PDF

Photo of a museum gallery with LED lighting in track fixtures overhead.


LED Retrofit Lamps: Washington, DC
In several galleries at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, halogen and incandescent lighting was replaced with LED PAR 30, PAR 38, and MR16 lamps. Although there were performance issues and challenges affecting compatibility with the museum's track fixtures, electricity use reductions were notable—recovering the cost of the LEDs in 16 months of operation through energy savings alone. (June 2012)
Smithsonian American Art Museum ReportPDF
Smithsonian American Art Museum Video

Photo of museum exhibit with pictures hanging on walls and illuminated by track lights.


LED Retrofit Lamps: Malibu, California
At the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, 12W LED PAR 38 lamps replaced 60W halogen PAR 38 flood lamps on a one-for-one basis for a special photography exhibition. The LED lamps resulted in energy savings approaching 83 percent compared to the traditional halogen system; simple payback was estimated to occur between years two and three. (March 2012)
Getty Museum ReportPDF

Photo of a road at night with a street light in the foreground.


LED Roadway Lighting: New York, New York
On Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive in New York City, LED luminaires from four different manufacturers were compared to the incumbent high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires and evaluated for relative light output and performance. Although energy savings ranged from 26 to 57 percent compared to the incumbent HPS, with a high potential for improvement in illumination quality, the report shows how life-cycle costs would need to improve to economically justify an investment in solid-state lighting for many roadway lighting applications. (December 2011)
FDR Drive ReportPDF

Photo of a street at night with a post-top street light in the right foreground and two more in the background.


LED Ornamental Post-Top Street Lights: Sacramento, California
The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium evaluated four different LED replacements for existing ornamental post-top street lights in Sacramento using computer simulations, field measurements, and laboratory testing. The study was restricted to retrofit or integrated replacement products that would either fit into the existing acorn fixture, or be similar in daytime appearance. This challenge proved formidable, as the results indicate that none of the LED products evaluated would be cost-effective replacements for the existing 100W HPS luminaires. (December 2011)
Sacramento Street Light ReportPDF

Photo of a museum gallery with LED track lights illuminating several large pieces of art.


LED Retrofit Lamps: Eugene, Oregon
In the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, 90W PAR38 130V narrow flood lamps used for accent lighting were replaced with 12W LED PAR38 replacement lamps for a special exhibition, and the museum also staged a side-by-side comparison of three different LED PAR38 replacement lamps against their standard halogen lamp. The LED system lighting the exhibition showed a lower present value life-cycle cost, using 14% of the energy and having a life 10 times longer, than the halogen system. (September 2011)
Jordan Schnitzer Museum ReportPDF

Photo of a corporate lobby with LED track lights illuminating eight framed pieces of art.


LED Retrofit Lamps: Portland, Oregon
In the Bonneville Power Administration headquarters building in Portland, 15W and 23W reflectorized compact fluorescent (CFL) track lights used to illuminate artwork were replaced with 12W LED lamps. Although the study did not show rapid payback on the LED installation compared to the CFL products, color quality and power quality improved with the LED lamps, and the narrower light distribution of the LED product more effectively concentrated the lumens on the artwork. (July 2011)
Bonneville Power Administration ReportPDF

Photo of a lighting design lab space with a person standing at right.


LED T8 Replacement Products: Seattle, Washington
At the Lighting Design Lab in Seattle, LED T8 replacement products were compared to their fluorescent counterparts. These "best in class" examples of LED products are approaching linear fluorescent systems in performance, in some cases showing superior application efficacies. Challenges remain, however, with the cost of the LED systems, as well as with their overall levels of illumination. (May 2011)
LED T8 Replacement Product StudyPDF

Photo of a Walmart store front with an LED parking lot luminaire at left.


LED Parking Lot Lighting: Leavenworth, Kansas
At a new Walmart Superstore in Leavenworth, Kansas, LED parking lot luminaires were installed that achieved a 63% energy savings against a theoretical baseline (since the site was new construction, no baseline system was actually installed). Simple payback for the LED system was 6.1 or 7.5 years, depending on the respective hypothetical baseline. (May 2011)
Walmart ReportPDF

Photo of a reception desk in a hotel lobby featuring LED lighting.


LED Retrofit Lamps: San Francisco, California
At the InterContinental Hotel in San Francisco, halogen wall-grazing luminaires, track lights, and recessed downlights in the lobby and other common areas were retrofitted with 6W LED MR-16 or 11W PAR30 replacement lamps. The LED lamps resulted in 70% energy savings compared to the halogen lamps, with an estimated payback of a little over one year. (November 2010—Updated to include results of 9000 hour testing, January 2012)
InterContinental Hotel ReportPDF

Photo of a museum gallery with a display case at center and LED track lighting overhead.


LED Museum Accent Lighting: Chicago, Illinois
At Chicago's Field Museum of Natural History, 32 halogen track luminaires used to light an enclosed gallery exhibit were replaced with an LED system using 26 track fixtures. The LED system resulted in 63% energy savings compared to the halogen system, while achieving a simple payback of roughly 3 years. Because the LED luminaires used do not emit energy in the infrared or ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, they are also expected to be less detrimental to some museum artifacts. (November 2010)
Field Museum ReportPDF

Photo of a shopping plaza showing an LED parking lot light to the left and an HPS light to the right.


LED Parking Lot Lighting: Manchester, New Hampshire
In a shopping plaza parking lot in Manchester, New Hampshire, high-pressure sodium and metal halide luminaires were replaced with LED luminaires controlled by integral occupancy sensors that vary between "high" and "low" light output settings. The LED luminaires achieved energy savings of 58% and an estimated payback of around three years at this location, where electricity and maintenance costs for the existing lights are relatively high. (June 2010)
T.J.Maxx ReportPDF
T.J.Maxx Report BriefPDF

Aerial view of LED installation site from Palo Alto GATEWAY demonstration.


LED Roadway Lighting: Palo Alto, California
In Palo Alto, California, seven LED and three induction streetlight luminaires replaced high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires on two residential streets, and two LED and two induction luminaires were installed on a commercial street to test a remote streetlight monitoring system. Of the three systems, LED used the least energy (44% reduction compared to HPS). Simple payback was estimated to be around 12 years for retrofitting existing HPS with an LED luminaire, and 10 years in a new construction scenario. (June 2010)
Palo Alto ReportPDF
Palo Alto Report BriefPDF

Photo of a residential street at night, with an LED street light at left and an HPS street light at right.


LED Street Lighting: Lija Loop, Portland
On Lija Loop, a residential street in Portland, Oregon, eight high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with LED street light luminaires. Project results included an estimated payback of 7.6 years for new installations and 20 for replacement scenarios. (November 2009)
Lija Loop ReportPDF

Photo of a row of freezer cases at a supermarket with a ladder and workcart nearby and a maintenance worker standing next to them.


LED Freezer Case Lighting: Albertsons Grocery
At an Albertsons Grocery in Eugene, Oregon, upright freezer cases were retrofitted with LED striplights combined with occupancy sensors, and compared against standard fluorescent lighting on the opposite side of the aisle. Calculated payback periods approached five years from estimated energy and maintenance savings for a typical 5-door case. (October 2009)
Freezer Case ReportPDF

View at night looking down a bridge made up of two sections. Between the sections is a base holding two bright street lamps, shaped liked antennas, the left one curved to the left and the right one curved to the right.


LED Roadway Lighting: I-35W Bridge
The I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, features LED roadway lighting on the main span, offering DOE the opportunity to study the use of LED lighting in a highly challenging environment over the course of three years. Phase 1 was completed in September 2008. Phase 2, involving long-term monitoring of the LED lighting, is expected to yield valuable information on lumen depreciation, physical effects, and performance impacts over time. (August 2009)
Bridge Report, Phase 1PDF

Photo of an outdoor supermarket parking lot with four LED light poles in view.


LED Parking Lot Lighting: Raley's Supermarket
At a Raley's Supermarket in West Sacramento, California, several metal halide (MH) luminaires were replaced with new LED luminaires incorporating bi-level operation (dim state and full state) controlled by motion detectors. Results indicated an energy savings potential approaching 70% on an annual basis, a more uniform lighting distribution, and payback periods of less than five years. (February 2009)
Raley's ReportPDF

Aerial photo of a residential street at night, with LED street lights on the left side and high-pressure sodium street lights on the right.


LED Street Lighting: City of San Francisco
In the Sunset District of San Francisco, four manufacturers' LED street lights were installed on four public avenues to replace 100-watt nominal high-pressure sodium luminaires, independently demonstrating the performance of a number of currently available products in one specific application. (December 2008)
San Francisco ReportPDF

Photo at night of a parking garage filled with cars, with bright lights overhead.


LED Parking Garage Lighting: Providence Portland Medical Center (PPMC)
With an eye on replacing its aging stock of luminaires campus-wide, PPMC wanted to evaluate more energy-efficient lighting options. In this project, PPMC replaced several high-pressure sodium fixtures in the hospital parking garage with LED luminaires, enabling a side-by-side comparison of the lighting performance, quality, energy savings, and user feedback. (November 2008)
PPMC Report BriefPDF

Photo of a kitchen with lit downlights.


LED Residential Downlights and Undercabinet Lights: 2008 Eugene Tour of Homes
LED downlights represent one of the most promising applications for SSL technology and significant energy savings. This project studied the installation of LED downlights and undercabinet lights in two "green" showcase homes in Eugene, Oregon. LED downlights are emerging as a viable energy-saving alternative to incandescent and fluorescent downlights. (October 2008)
Eugene ReportPDF

Photo at night of an empty street or parking lot with two rows of bright streetlights.


LED Walkway Lighting: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center
At the FAA Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, six modular LED luminaires were installed along exterior walkways, replacing six high-pressure sodium luminaires. Project results include photometric data, projected energy savings, payback analysis, and user feedback on perceived improved visibility. (March 2008)
FAA Report BriefPDF

Photo taken down the middle of a street at night, with a bright white streetlight halfway in the distance, a parked car just past the streetlight, and buildings and a yellow light in the distance.


LED Street Lighting: City of Oakland
The City of Oakland wanted to assess the energy, economic, and safety impacts of replacing high-pressure sodium (HPS) street lights with LED luminaires. This project involved installation of 15 LED street lights – ten on the LED-only street and five on the LED/HPS street. (Phase III, November 2008; Phase II, January 2008)
Oakland Report, Phase IIIPDF
Oakland Report Phase IIPDF
Oakland Report Brief Phase IIPDF