Electric Vehicle Fall 2013 Quarterly Discussion Webinar (Text Version)

This is a text version of the video for the Electric Vehicle Fall 2013 Quarterly Discussion webinar presented on Sept. 25, 2013, by Ted Bohn, Argonne National Laboratory; and Matthew Shirk, Idaho National Laboratory.

COORDINATOR: Welcome and thank you for standing by. We'd like to inform all parties your lines will be listen-only until the question and answer session. At that time, to ask a question, you may press star 1 on your touchtone phone. Today's conference is being recorded. If you have any objections, you may disconnect at this time.

And now I'll turn today's meeting over to Linda Bluestein, Department of Energy. Thank you. You may begin.

LINDA BLUESTEIN: Thank you very much, everybody. Thanks for tuning in today. I'm Linda Bluestein. I'm Co-Director of the Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

On this webinar we have two speakers, Matt Shirk and Ted Bohn. Matt is with Idaho National Laboratory and Ted is with Argonne National Laboratory.

As some of you know, our laboratories do a lot of work in the area of electric vehicles infrastructure and solving a lot of the problems in this marketplace. And one of the issues is getting good data and data collection. And at this point Idaho now how millions of miles of data collected from the EV Project and other work its done through its advanced vehicle testing activity. And Matt will go over some of that information on his presentation.

And Ted will tackle interoperability and networks, which are big issues for communities across the country that are looking at putting in a meaningful electric vehicle charging capacity.

The content of this—of these presentations in this webinar will be recorded. And they'll also—the presentations will be on the Web. Sandra Loi from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory will send you links to these.

And we'll also ask her to send you links as well to information—all the information now has been collected from our 2011 round of funding on electric vehicle community readiness projects. There's a lot of great information in there for communities looking to get started or get to the next step in terms of policies and processes and working on paving the way for electric vehicles and electric vehicle charging infrastructure.

So all that is available to you. And we're—we continue to work on a reader's guide to make this even more accessible and we'll let you know when that's up as well.

One subject that we will not discuss on this particular webinar is information about ECOtality. Even though we're going to speaking about the EV Project, the government was working with INL to collect the data. But people have questions about ECOtality and what's happening to them as a company and the fate of the infrastructure they've developed.

We cannot really discuss that on this call. So if people have questions about it, we do have somebody at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, an attorney who can field questions about ECOtality. And I'll be happy to send you his information if you want to email me or Sandra. We can send you the information of Mr. Detwiler at NETL.

And now with that, we'll ask Matt Shirk with Idaho National Laboratory to present his discussion. Matt is a Mechanical Engineer in the Energy Storage and Transportation Systems Department at the Idaho National Laboratory. He conducts research on advanced technology vehicles and infrastructure through data collected from on road testing.

Vehicle technologies studied include hydrogen, internal combustion engines, plug in electric hybrid vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles.

Matt's completed his Bachelor's in Mechanical Engineering and he participated in and led Future Truck and Challenge X competitions in which a 2002 Ford Explorer and 2005 Chevy Equinox were built into hybrid electric vehicles.

During graduate school, he was a National Science Foundation GK through 12 graduate teaching fellows at Penn State's graduate research and education in advanced transportation technologies product. And he also completed DOE graduate automotive technology education curriculum and certification through Pen State's Advanced Energy Storage Center.

And he offers much expertise to us here at DOE and also to our Clean Cities coordinators and other stakeholders across the country. So Matt, the presentation is yours now.

MATT SHIRK: Okay. Thank you, Linda. Am I on?

LINDA BLUESTEIN: You are. Go ahead.

MATT SHIRK: Okay. Thank you. Okay. I'd like to talk a little bit about the EV Project and the most recent data from the quarter and give you an update on the plug in electric vehicle activities at INL.

First I'll give an EV Project update. We'll look at the latest national and regional results. And then we'll also look at over the life of the project some installation costs and permitting costs for infrastructure, lessons learned in focused analyses. And I'll point you to where you can access all of this information on the EV Project website.

We'll touch on an NFPA best practices for emergency response to electric vehicle incidents document that was conducted last year and an update on EVSE testing.

We'll also look at some additional infrastructure testing including a plug in electric vehicle travel corridor study, EV taxi pilot in New York and a DC fast charge affects study where we're looking at how are batteries affected in some of the vehicles by repeated DC fast charge as compared to Level 2.

Okay. So this is the data from the most recent full quarter of 2013. We have information for the project vehicles, Leafs and Volts. And we've gotten to collect quite a bit of data. You see the millions of miles; eight million for the Leaf and about five and 3/4 million for the Volt.

You see the usage varies a little bit between the vehicles. The numbers in blue are probably the ones to bring to your attention for now. And if we look at the distance per day, you see that the vehicles with the different technologies are being utilized different at least on the average.

If you're looking at the number of trips between charging events and the number of charging events per day, it also varies between the vehicle technologies, which can be expected somewhat due to the electric range and their range altogether.

Some data that can be gathered from the charging for each of these cars is looking at how complete are the charges and when are people choosing to or having to recharge their vehicles.

The data from the Leaf is on the left and we see a fairly normal distribution around about half empty, so 50% state of charge where very few people are recharging when they're mostly full. But similarly very few people are waiting until the battery is very, very close to depletion. So you see that curve hasn't changed much from other quarters.

And then with the completeness of charging we can see that most of the charges in terms of percent of charging events are filled up both home and away from home locations or filled up to about 80%, which is one of the options on the Leaf for a long life mode where it charges the battery a little bit less fully.

In terms of where they're charging, the majority is at home still. And we see some away from home location charging as well for both of the vehicle types. And some portion of the charges are at unknown location. Could be if they're in a parking garage or somewhere where the GPS signal is not getting through.

For the Volt we see some, you know, a pretty different picture on the beginning of charge—state of charge. We see a lot more pronounced incidents of the vehicle being nearly—with the battery being nearly empty. And this state of charge is really the EV mode state of charge. Those numbers are adjusted such that zero would be where the vehicle no longer operates in full electric mode.

And with the Volt smaller battery pack we really see that most of the charges result in greater than 90% state of charge at the end when it's unplugged. And when away from home it's I guess somewhat intuitive we see more of a distribution although they're still charging pretty fully. We'll see more of a distribution of different states of charge due to the nature of away from home charging being typically shorter.

Looking at some of the grid impact from the EV Project data. The top two charts they're broken up by weekday—oh I'm sorry. It's showing the time of day when the vehicles are being connected both at home on the left and in public on the right.

And they're somewhat inverse shape. And if you look at that you see a trough when people tend to be away from home and arrive when people are coming home and plugging their vehicles in.

Then the opposite for connection in the public where as people leave their homes they tend to be plugging in in the public. Although if you look at the scales, the utilization of the charging units as a percentage of charging units is significantly less for the public infrastructure.

The bottom shows the aggregate demand for all of the national chargers in the project. We see similar shapes with—as the vehicles are plugged in. Electricity demand gradually increases and then we see a spike at midnight. We'll talk about that on the next slide.

Similarly with the public of course follows the shape of the public charging infrastructure connect time. But if you look at the demand, it's also significantly lower than the home charging.

So here we've got the connect times broken up by region. All four of the regions show a very, very, very similar profile in terms of when the vehicles are connected.

But going to the next slide and looking at load we see that in San Diego load is very minimal until midnight where we see a pretty drastic peak. We see the same for San Francisco and we see a little bit of something in Los Angeles.

But San Diego and San Francisco have time of use rates and effect that clearly impact with the charging actually starts and load is placed from those vehicles. Washington State hydro power, cheaper electricity, no time of use rates in effect really reflects the unregulated charging, unregulated here being a financial incentive.

These plots—and this will be here for your view so I'm not going to go through all the numbers. But looking at residential, and again public charging, these show distributions of lengths of time with the vehicle connected per charging event.

So you see that on the top right chart in the public the charge sessions tend to be shorter. And then with the home sessions they tend to be more distributed across longer charge events, which is intuitive as well.

I'm going to skip this one. It's something that you can kind of take in looking at the number of residential charge events per week throughout the project as the number of EVSE grows.

I'm going to talk a little bit about—so that data is all available in the quarterly report. Now there's some usage, deployment costs and lessons learned. And I'll touch on a few of them but there are more on the EV Project website and I'll point you onto where to find that.

With the DC fast charger usage, of the 87 DC faster chargers installed, there are 27,000 charge events. And what we're seeing with the DC fast charging is on a per charger basis significantly more charging than with Level 2, which can be expected due to the shorter charge times and these are for DC fast chargers. On average 19.5 minutes. And we're seeing 3.8 charge events per day.

You see the demand profiles are fairly spiky both by connection and the electricity demand. And that also reflects the nature of the short charging times and the high power delivered by these units and the relatively fewer number of DC fast charge units.

This pi chart shows the distribution of peak power during DC fast charging. And while all of the units in the project are capable of 50 kilowatts, the majority of charging is done below 35 kilowatts.

Looking a distribution of connect time for the DC fast charging, pretty normal distribution here and we see that most of the charging is done between 15 and 30 minutes as well. No charge events have occurred where the time is greater than 60 minutes.

And in terms of energy delivered, you see a spike between the six and ten kilowatt-hour range, which is pretty understandable when the vehicle is nearly depleted. You can delivery energy up until it reaches its top of voltage. So you can't quite top off the vehicle in quite as a time effective manner as you can get a significant amount of energy. But also no charge event delivered more than 18-kilowatt hours in this project to date.

So if we look at the number of DC fast charge versus Level 2 for EVSE by region here, you can see that the red bars, the DC fast chargers really outweigh the—on a per unit basis, they outweigh the public Level 2.

A little bit of information about cost here. We see current installation costs range from $90,000 to almost $50,000 and that's the sample of 100 units. The average is about 21,000 and this is installation not including the hardware and not including the DC fast charge unit itself. And it may not include any other costs footed by the utility or other parties that were not required to be paid by the contractor.

This is some of the same information split up by region. I'm going to skip that. You can take a look through. But I have a chart showing—it's ordered of course by cost. But just trying to show a little bit of the distribution of installation site costs for the 99 DC fast chargers in the project. Similarly by region the maximum, minimum and mean cost for those DC fast charger installations.

Some issues are power upgrades. You know, having to prep the site in terms of landscaping, asphalt, et cetera. There are affects to other underground services. And the operating costs are very much unknown. So installation costs can be a very significant part of a DC fast charge installation.

One thing learned with the DC fast charging is there is quite a bit of variation for both energy costs but also for demand charges. So the demand charge is when a certain threshold is exceeded for a 15-minute period. The utility company will charge a once per billing period fee to have supplied this peak energy power. And some of the utilities that are supplying no demand charges for DC fast charge are listed on the right.

Looking at some of the sample of the utility demand charges, I see San Diego Gas and Electric a little over $1000, Southern California Edison at $1460. This can be really a deal breaker for DC fast charging infrastructure that is not utilized heavily because even one charge has the higher kilowatt threshold can incur a demand charge. That is not insignificant.

A little bit of information about installing Level 2 and DC fast charge. The ADA requirements there's still a little bit of interpretation there but this project is installing these as best they can to meet ADA guidelines for the accessible charger and also having—if there are only a few chargers, the first charger should be ADA accessible.

And with some of the restrictions that property owners have with number of spaces and things, that can be a significant driver of either cost or figuring out how to lay out the infrastructure when putting only a few units in.

About to pick up this pace a little bit. I'll skip some of this; permitting fees by different territories, different cities. And we'll look at some of the Level 2 installation costs. We've got a chart here. It's not the most beautiful. But it's showing the range of costs throughout the project my months.

So you can see there's quite a span between the minimum, the lower—the green line and the maximum, the brownish red line. It can really depend on where the service panel is, needs to feed the EVSE. It can depend on the nature of the building it's being installed in.

There are a lot of things that can drive the cost. You see the minimum of $250 up to a max of over $8000 for a residential Level 2 install. Once again, not including hardware.

Similar data by project territory. And this shows how permit fees are a portion of the other install costs. See permit fees are variable but in general a low slice of—a fairly small slice of the overall installation costs.

Just a couple examples of signage. Looking at how this might be a little bit difficult to interpret. And the next slide—oh, I'm missing that one. Never mind. There's one with a ticket. You know, different municipalities have different rules for EV parking at a—at infrastructure and some of them incur some fines.

So I mentioned the NFPA EV battery emergency response project. There's a document online at that link. I hope it shows up on your screen. But it's on the INL AVTA website. And it's a best practices document for emergency responders involving EV battery hazards.

The—it was funded—the major funding was provided by DOE and DOT kicked in a portion as well. Plug in electric—I'm sorry, plug in hybrid electrics, EREV and battery electric vehicle packs were burned in a fire fighting simulator, which is basically a metal vehicle chassis.

And the report that you can access it details the test methods, the comments from emergency responders and recommendations on how to fight these types of fires and lots of lessons learned. So the full documents are both on the NFPA and the INL website. So I encourage you to take a look at that if you're interested in some of the first responder materials that are available.

So some more of the infrastructure testing activities at the lab. We've looked a little bit about Level 2 and DC fast chargers, looking at deficiency and what are the profiles when the vehicles are plugged into them.

For Level 2 we look at some of the standby power requirements for different EVSE. How much energy are they drawing when the vehicle isn't plugged in? It's fairly minor but there are differences among the EVSE tested. And there's also a small but still existing power consumption by the unit when it's charging.

INL is testing wireless charging, working with a SAE committee on standardization. The test setup here is meant to document both electric and magnetic fields that could be—that could be in existence during wireless charging to a user. Also measuring system efficiency.

And there's a report online from the first system tested plug list Level 2 EV charging system and it's 3.3 kilowatts. And that's on the Web at the address below.

And one more slide. We have the couple other studies. We've got the I-5 corridor study, which I mentioned where we're taking data from EV Project Nissan Leaf and we've been able to secure agreements with Washington and Oregon to look at their in part DOE funded fast charging infrastructure data along the I-5 to learn how—to look at how these DC fast charger being used and then how the vehicle travel patters are affected.

We also have DC fast charge study in which a couple of Leafs are charged exclusively Level 2, two more are charged on DC fast charge and two other packs are being tested in the laboratory controlling temperature and the environment.

We also have a data collection effort with NYSERDA for 500 EVSE in New York State. And then we've also been receiving data from Nissan Leaf taxis in New York City and hope to have some information on the Web soon at the quarter report from that.

And to use Jim Frankfort's comment and if you've heard him present you should know, if we only had another 30 minutes we could have another 100 slides. But since I think it's Ted's turn, I'll turn it back. And thank you for your attention.

LINDA BLUESTEIN: Thanks Matt. That's a really great data and information. We're going to hold off on questions until Ted's presentation is made. And then we'll have, you know, some significant time left available to take your questions.

But next I want to introduce Ted Bohn. Ted's going to talk to use about interoperability standards and updates to manage energy networks for EVSEs in the workplace, multi unit dwelling and for installers.

And Ted is Senior Power Electrics—Electronics Engineer with the Transportation R&D Center at Argonne National Laboratory. He has a Master's Degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and has extensive experience in electrical engineering in industrial and research environments, with an emphasis on power electronics, electric machines and control systems.

Prior to joining the lab he was an Electrical Engineer at General Motors. He has over a decade of experience in hybrid electric vehicle-related design projects and he was the recipient of the Grainger Outstanding Power Electronics Engineer Award in 2002.

He chairs several SAE and NIST sub committees on interoperability and sub metering in addition to actively participating on more than a dozen vehicle and technology standards committees. He's a technical lead on the recently established EV Smart Grid Interoperability Center at Argonne National Laboratory.

So with that, I'll turn it over to Ted.

TED BOHN: One quick question about changing pages. Do I do that or you do that?

LINDA BLUESTEIN: Sandra.

WOMAN: You can use the arrows on the bottom left there Ted. You should have access.

TED BOHN: Okay. Thank you very much. Anyway so thank you for that wonderful introduction Linda. Again, I'm Ted Bohn, Argonne National Lab. Some of you have heard me speak before.

I'm going to constrain this to mainly talking about interoperability standards although there are a lot of other standards that interact and overlap with especially European standards. So ANSI, IEEE, ISO, IEC. So there's many different standards and how they work together is a big part of interoperability.

On the cover page is a picture I took at the recent infrastructure show in Michigan. And I thought for sure this was a spoof but it was actually an article out of 1916 Saturday Evening Post from Detroit Electric saying do you really want a 200-mile battery car. Do you really need that much range? Because all you're going to do is you're going to shopping, you're going to the market, go to a theater.

And like calling, they had cell phones 100 years ago. Like no, 100 years ago they didn't have cell phones. You took your car and you drove some place, you went to call on someone. Anyway, just very interesting on how many analogies apply from 100 years ago to today.

So with that, we get into what is interoperability, which is a fascinating word. It as 16 letters but eight syllables. I don't know many words that have eight syllables. If you look at Webster's dictionary, talks about the ability of a system to work with parts of—parts or equipment from other systems.

And so going back to pioneers of interoperability, you have ATMs. So we rely a lot on ATMs to be interoperable and work between one ATM in your bank and another one.

We then can go to the Internet. We are vastly dependent even on this meeting today that all those different elements of the Web works together seamlessly. And the same thing goes with cell phones. There might even be some of you listening to this on a cell phone or even watching it on a smart cell phone.

Once upon a time there were big analog bricks. And so oops—missed my arrow. That's all. Once upon a time ATMs looked like this on the left of just big machines with very heavy screens and very interesting anecdote about who used ATMs in the early days.

So the people who started the ATMs didn't make much money because everyone didn't trust the machine. They wanted to talk to someone in the bank. The only person that used an ATM was someone who didn't want to be seen going to a bank. And let's just say less than reputable people who work late at night. And again, as a colorful anecdote.

Computers. We all know what computers looked—used to look like and the same thing with telephones. Used to be as big bricks. Without interoperability we might still be using these big bricks.

But today they have wonderful things. We have all kinds of smartphones that can do almost anything with your bank account and your ATM that works pretty much anywhere on the planet.

We have this guy again not black hair anymore but white hair wearing Google Glass. So basically a computer of eyewear. And the Google college guys place it by itself and of course all the different types of cell phones that interoperate between different systems.

Moving that forward towards EV access and interoperability of building systems, so basically what I would call the left side of EVSE from the cloud or the user to the electrical vehicle supply equipment.

And that's a big issue right now that people want to roam but there's always purpose built systems that aren't interoperable with each other. So the goal so far has been to make a clearinghouse or to make an interface that is open to this open charge point protocol, this open—oh, what's it called—open interchange protocol. And again, charge point interchange. There's always different names but essentially the same goals of open access between systems of systems.

So the inter charge platform in Europe and some people want to deploy it here, uses this quick reader codes and basically you take your phone and you look at the code. It'll tell you which EVSE you're looking at.

And from there you can do a lot of things from your phone or other element RFID readers, the smartphone or plug in charge where the vehicle actually talks to the EVSE with no user intervention.

So those are where we're at, where we're headed. But there's a lack of interoperability right now. We'll talk about that in future slides. So can't get at my arrow button.

So here in the United States you may even have several of these cards. So I have most of these cards in my desk drawer because I don't usually carry them with me to charge. I only bring the card I need to charge or I charge before I leave.

But that being said, in California there are two very important pieces of legislation that are supposed to close on October 13. So basically unless the Governor vetoes it, these are going to move through NB made into a law.

So the first one is fairly general, which requires building code changes for new multifamily dwellings be wired for EV infrastructure and parking spots set aside that have EV charging access. So as a law. Turns out it's a voluntary law. But it's still a law.

And then SV 454 is a little bit more direct, which says that if California new commission and of course not to mention failed companies such as 350Green and tentatively ECOtality and others.

But once they have these proprietary systems, what do the people who own these systems do when there's no more support for it? What you really like is almost like Verizon that if your company closes, you just take your SIM card or whatever it is and go get onto another network that has the equal access to your operating system.

But that exist right now. So this is where a lot of the SAE standards, NEMA, there's a bunch of different groups are all pushing. So again, NEMA and other industry working groups are working together to get consensus.

How can we interoperate between all these different cards you see on the bottom of Slide 6 to work together as a system? Again, interoperability for access control and the same with billing and we get into billing a little bit more.

But just to expand upon these points keeping my limited amount of information. I apologize. These slides are densely packed so people can look at them later. Since I only have 20 minutes to go through it, I'm going to go through briskly. But you can go back and look at some of the details and of course the embedded links that I've dropped on a bunch of the pages.

So the first one basically says it's a voluntary standard. It doesn't specify how it's to be implemented but it says that 3% of multifamily dwelling parking spaces are to be EV infrastructure capable. And the same with 10% of non-residential, i.e., office spaces will be for low emitting vehicle, which would imply electric vehicles.

The SV 454 says equal access and so I don't mean to offend anybody who works for an EV SAE supply company or a network operator but they prohibit in general. They discourage direct purchases because they would like you to have a membership to have an annual support fee structure that keeps the network running because again if you don't use it, there's no revenue. You can't keep the network going to unintelligible.

But if you have a credit card reader, if you have large transactions or not large but large relative to what you're buying, transaction fee. So it's kind of a balancing act. If you need it once in a while and you really, really need it, you should be allowed to use your credit card. Some companies don't allow that.

And there are some media feed manufacturers refuse to join the charging network operators because of that disqualification because they are a lot of people who personally don't have a PayPal account, don't have all these other—but they almost always have a credit in their pocket.

And when you need electricity you need electricity. And hence this interoperability issue of equal access and full disclosure. Whatever the fee is you have to put it on the nameplate of the vehicle much like the ATMs have to have a sticker that says when you use this machine they're gonna give you an extra $2 because you don't belong to this bank's network.

Going forward to the more solid activities. On August 15 in Sacramento the California Energy Commission had a interoperability workshop. The questions that were asked out of these five below that mainly talk about if we were to use the open charge plate protocol, how would we do it in California. What does the hardware and software have to do? What are some of the implications of that?

And so each company got to weigh in. Each of the stakeholders weighed in and there's a whole day of, you know, giving presentations about how their company felt about interoperability. Should it be more open or should it be more proprietary with some kind of clearinghouse?

So this is digging a little bit into the OCPP, the open charge point protocol structure. There's just 25 parts to it. Ten of them are steps that are initiated by the charge point so basically you do something, you'll plug your car in and the charge point wants to transmit information about who you are and what you want to the central system.

Testing of those functions go from the central system on back. And again, this is just the information exchange. Charge point is going to try and authorize it.

It's going to try and boot up. It's going to send some data back to diagnostics, firmware upgrades, all these different things to make sure there's actually communication because sometimes just because a station isn't transmitting doesn't mean that it's offline. It might mean that it's broken.

And then we also have this meter value and again metering—can the National Institute of Standards and Technology Office Weights and Measures Handbook 130 talks about method of sale and Handbook 44 talks about measurement devices and requirements for measurement devices.

This is a hot topic right now. So anybody who's involved with that either at the state level or the federal level or the industry level knows there's a big tug of war on how you can sell electricity. It has to be sold by time and if it is sold by time, do I have to measure energy? Do I have to print a paper slip much as we do with liquid fuel?

So there's a lot of give and take and assertion of regulatory versus industry streamlining where they'd like to reduce their cost and their overhead but there's always this risk of fraud. And so it is a federal statute that you may not—may not enable anything that perpetuates fraud.

And so if I tell you you got five pounds of eggs but I don't have to weight it or whatever the five pounds of meat and you say trust me, this stack of meat weights five pounds, you'd say well even though I bought it by the stack, I would still like to know how, you know, I don't need exactly how many pounds in it but I'd like to know there's more than an ounce in there.

So the whole words trust me usually light up a whole chain of people who don't trust us. And then there's potential system again talks about the change availability, the charging availability and then again reservation.

So going on to the other side. From the EVSE, which you see in the lower right in the arrow virman unit through the J1772 plug to the vehicle there's an interlock, a set of physical analog pins. And different things happen on different levels and they're called change of state.

If you have a power interruption, that's a Tier 2 quality issue. We have mechanical interoperability, see it in the lower left about the insertion ports have to be below 70 Newton, a force both in and out.

So we have very specific procedures, very specific pass/fail criteria. And eventually Underwriters Laboratory, ETL, all the different certification outfits will have a verified mark that will say SAE J2953 verified. And so almost like a UL safety certification this is a certification that talks about functionality that says this car and this charge station and only this car and only this charge station.

That's why I have this note in the specific to this PEV EVSE pair. I cannot talk about this EVSE as interoperable. You have to say what is it interoperable with. Right.

And so compatibility and compliance to a standard and EVSE can be compliant with and compatible with a standard but it must be interoperable with another object, in this case the car.

But Argonne just to keep this moving along, we're developing software, hardware and conducting a small set of tests. So you can see five and ten EVSEs will be 50 tests—successful tests and that doesn't count retest if you get inconclusive results.

But if for instance there are 20 PEVs and 40 EVSEs, that would be 800 tests and that would take better than a man-year to run. And so DOE had given some funding to ECOtality through FOA-239 but as we are not going to discuss today, all that work is on hold and will be redirected in a different way or re-postured.

But nonetheless DOE had put some money towards this task of say we need a lot of PEVs tested with a lot of EVSEs to guarantee that no matter what happens when you go to plug in your car in the field some test has been run to assure you that everything is going to go as planned.

The next level of 2953, the next revision is going to include digital communications and then of course user functions. And again, all focused on interoperability.

So as we mentioned in the introduction, DOE has—with you and the Joint Research Center in Europe under the European Commission founded co or basically joined research centers—joint—how do I say—system lab for interoperability.

So this lab is dedicated and you can see in the upper left grid of the high level people in DOE and Argonne Lab saying we're open. And on the right you see people actually doing work with lots of cables and wires and dnyos and test benches. And you see, you know, Jason on the left and Dan Overzinski in the back and lots of EVSEs and lots of distribution networks and smart grids. So just a lot of communication.

So the things you don't see are probably that most challenging. So setting up networks and this interoperability of networks kind of lets you see an RF chamber for wireless charging and in the far back you see DC fast charge stations.

So on the lower right you can see many sets of skids of EVSE. So I don't quite have one of everything produced but very close. So we can go through a lot of different evaluations. And whenever a question comes up, we can pull up that hardware set.

So for instance the wireless charging hardware that's on the market right now interferes with the blink station and it is not EMC compliant. It doesn't pass FCC. And so when you turn one on the other one turns off. Clearly an interoperability issue. It's actually a compatibility issue but we say interoperability.

In the lower center you see the battery charging system lab. So we have battery emulators, full on batteries, chambers and of course the campus itself is several thousand acres with dozens of charging stations that we have connected in a real world context, which leads me to the next set of discussion topics.

Fuel verification. So if you do have a liquid fuel pump and you know that you dispensed two gallons, you could take a graduated cylinder, zero the pump, put 2.0 gallons into that graduated cylinder and look at the pump and you can see 2.0 gallons on the pump indicator. That would be fuel verification.

They have—you know, the Department of Agriculture, the State Commerce Commission, each state verifies their fuel dispensing system. So Handbook 130 and Handbook 44 talks about electricity as a fuel. So as if you were fueling electric vehicles now you have to verify that the dispensing equipment the accuracy has been verified and there'll be some sticker.

And so they need a tool for that. And so this is one of the tools that are described here. Again, this is at the high level of you have the blue box on the left, which is your EVSE, which has some kind of meter next to it or in it that will communicate to some cloud, which a laptop can access.

Then you have this pass through device, which is the equivalent of a flow meter. It'll have a meter built into it. And it also has to emulate the vehicle in case you don't want to have a real vehicle. You know, what if I want to take ten-kilowatt hour and my car doesn't have ten-kilowatt hour capacity. So I won't have a load bank.

And so on the next slide you can see a hardware rendering. So on the right you can see these air-cooled resistant load banks, which are also called 240 load space heaters. And they can do four kilowatt each.

So for less than $1000 we can compile all this hardware, calibrate it to an instant traceable source and run it on a laptop. So each of the states might, and I emphasize might, be in for in the order of $1000. Again, the things always come in higher than you think. Sometimes come in lower.

But the point is that we can use a low cost high accuracy meter attached in the upper left to a pass through device and you can just kind of see it looks like a funny extension cord with a bunch of taps on it. So you can see the voltage, current, pilot prox and measured amount.

And in the center you see an emulator that goes through the different states and actually turn on the EVSE. And then of course, you know, it's and measure the duty cycle to make sure that it is limiting the amount of current that is to be drawn by the vehicle, which leads to the placarding discussion. We'll get on to that.

Anyway, placarding 16 CFR 309 Part 18, which is—basically it's Part 17 appendix A, Appendix A. You can see on the right there's a picture of what the placards look, which really are about a 2-1/2 by 3 inch wide label that shows you what quality of fuel you're getting.

So again, octane some people can say good fuel but you want to have a number that shows the goodness. And again, octane is not a matter of how fast it burns but actually how slow it burns and how—what the quality of combustion you'll get in your engine. You have a low octane fuel usually it burns and pre-ignites. It burns fast and pre-ignites.

goes in less. If you have a test loan roadster and you want to know how are you going to get home, how fast are you going to charge, it's not placarded right now. It is required. It has been required for quite a while. The last update was done in 2011. The first version of this placard was actually issued in 1994. But it's never been enforced because this method of sale hasn't been there.

So as you see in the bold in the middle right, the NIST Handbook 130 method of sale. If it is dispensing energy as a fuel, you have to tell people what rates they're going to get it, what flavor, is it going to be conducted, is it wireless, is it AC, is it DC, is it 40 amps, is it ten kilowatt, is it two kilowatt?

And if it's non-fixed as it says in the middle type of supply, it might be something that follows the demand response. And if it follows demand response in the beginning of your charge you might have full range. In the middle it might go down for an hour. At the end it might go back up again.

So, nobody wants to put, it depends, on a sticker. So the Handbook 130 Committee has its work cut out to label and quantify what the—to describe what the label should say, if you don't have a fixed service.

So anyway at the bottom it just describes labels. But I believe anybody who's in the EVS industry or installation, the State will require inspection as much as they require inspection of liquid fuel pumps.

We're going on to the last topic which is optimization of opportunities in the national electrical change. So most people don't realize that NEC-625, Part 625, Paragraph 14 for the 2014 version has been amended that the charging loads, without a load management system are considered to be continuous.

So if you have a 30 amp EVSE you must have a 40 amp break 125% of your continuous load. But that's all you can draw on that brand's circuit.

If you have an automatic system, the maximum is what is determined by the load management system. So now I can put 1000 amps of EVSEs on a 40 am breaker as long as I only pull 40 amps at a time which means I can queue up a whole bunch of cars and turn them on.

And with the J1772 pilot signal I can swaddle them all the way down to less than 1000 watts or all the way up to a total rating of typically, you know, seven kilowatts; sometimes up to 20 kilowatts.

So again, it's a very important thing that this changed. And again, some people are going to take advantage of it. My group is working on a paper. We're going to do a proof of concept hardware.

So this white paper discusses the difference—and I'll pause a little bit just so people get a grasp on what we're talking about—some people say I want a lot of Level 1 EVSEs because I pull into the spot and 8:30 and I leave my spot at five o'clock.

I typically only need about 15 miles of extra driving range. So for some people that's only about three to four kilowatt hours. They say wow, even at 1000 watts that's four hours at 1000 watts. I just don't need much power so, Level 1 would cut it.

Now the problem is that I can't re-use that 20 amp circuit to do a 15 amp branch rating for that Level 1. I can't shuffle it around unless it's going to manage load system.

So, if I have a 50 kilowatt transformer in my workplace charging and a panel board that has enough slots to feed X number of spaces, how many could I do?

Well, 50 divided by 120 is 416 amps or 20 spaces with your 80% slash 125% of your 20 amp—of your 15 amp load is 20 amp circuit breaker.

So I can put in 20 circuit breakers on this 50 kilowatt transformer and still be, you know, serve 20 vehicles. That's pretty good. So it's 20 vehicles at about, you know, 1600/1800 watts.

Or, I could put in six TVSEs, and just assuming that they're seven kilowatt EVSEs, I can put in five of them. So you say wow, that's not really good then I have to have people back out of their spot and go find another spot when they're full.

Or Case 3 is I have an adjustable on a managed system, and now I can have either reservations or I can dynamically figure out who is charging. And when you're not charging, turn off your charger.

So if everybody pulls in in the morning and I want to just ramp them up evenly, some people are only going to take on ten miles, 15 miles, you know, roughly two to three kilowatt hours. But when they're done their charging station is going to indicate that they're not pulling anything and I can turn it off.

And so if I divide that up I can put 40 EVSEs on one branch circuit right because I can go even lower than Level 1. I can go to 1000 watts if I throttle them back.

So I can serve 40 customers. Everybody gets a hors d'oeuvre. I can serve five customers, will all five get 7.7 kilowatts? Or I can do something in-between where 20 of the 40 people can have 2000 watts each. And when they are full I can give it to another 20 people.

So again, dynamic allocation I think is going to be something in the future. And if you really commoditize; and again this is the take the style and the form and the function and all the user frills out say I have one function, people coming to work have some prepaid system, I don't need to have any subscription, just I need an on and off light, and then everything else is handled on the Web interface.

So what would they look like? Well if I put—and you can see the AeroVironment stations have a four slot charging station in the middle of four parking spots such that one post can serve four cars. Now this has four EVSEs in a kind of a circular fashion that points each way.

You'll see on the next slide actually, just put it into one 12 inch square box, and they just mash it down. I mean really squish al the air of it and all the style out of it and just one big steel grey box. Actually, a small steel grey box on a post.

How low can I bring that cost? And you're going to see, I'm going to—I think we can do this for $250 per vehicle. And so you say $250 per vehicle times 40 spots is $10,000. So yes, I believe you can do 40 spots for $10,000 of EVSE hardware plus whatever the electrician costs.

So as you look left to right here, you can see I numbered the four EVSE spots per four spots. And then of course jumping over another four spots, and the grey line indicates that there has to be some kind of electrical and data connection between the two.

So again, wires cost money, trenching costs money; that might be another $10,000. It might be very practical.

I didn't write it on here but I live in Madison, Wisconsin. I talked to my local utility—and again I'm going to go a little fast because we're hitting the end of our slides.

I asked them if I wanted a 50 kilowatt transformer hung over my parking lot that I already have a power line, I just wanted the transformer on the pole and new service brought to where my cars are, what would that cost?

They said its $1100 with an $800 allowance giving you a $300 net cost. Now that I find hard to believe, but I can install that 50 kilowatt new service for $300, my net cost, plus the electrical.

So anyway, so based on that discussion I think it's very exciting to see could you get 40 J1772 32 amp outputs in ten enclosures on ten posts in a 40 spot parking lot for under $20,000 system installed cost?

For the hardware in this case, the contact has a product that is aimed at that, so it has an Ethernet cord with a RS45 serial that has all the functions that basically have this plus the contactor in a box with all your electrical connections and your wires makes an EVSE.

So if I can put four sets or basically four EVSE controllers and four contactors—again, I admit this is a 20 amp labeled one; we would just put a 40 amp contactor in—but I believe in a 12 inch by four inch enclosure you can get four channels in there and I think you can do it for $1000 per enclosure of $250 per vehicle.

So, that's my ticker slide. And in conclusion, interoperability is very critical to make sure that everybody is happy. When they plug in their car it should always work. If it doesn't work there should be diagnostics or some other validation of what it should do, and the same thing goes if the power is interrupted, everything should reset normally.

Argon is working very hard on that topic, and we have an Interoperability Center for that. The MIST Handbook 130 is going to be very important. Placarding is going to be important.

Again, electric vehicle fueling will be enforced at the state level and I think a lot of you are going to be impacted. And again, this last topic I just discussed, to the National Electrical Code have offered new opportunities to stretch your budget on EVSE deployment.

So with that I'll hand it back to Linda.

LINDA BLUESTEIN: Thank you Ted. A lot of food for thought there. And so I guess at this point we would definitely like to open up the lines for questions regarding Matt and Ted's presentations.

I do want to remind everybody that the presentations will be posted on the website. The webinar is being recorded, and that Sandra Loi will send information out about how to link to those after the webinar.

But Sandra, can you see if there are any Q&As by email and also if we could open the lines that would be great.

SANDRA LOI: Sounds good. Go ahead. Go ahead, Candy.

COORDINATOR: Thank you. As a sign for any questions from the phone lines, press star 1. Please unmute your line and record your name to be introduced. Again for questions, press star 1. If you would like to withdraw the request at any time you may press star 2.

Thank you, one moment while the questions register.

SANDRA LOI: All right, thank you Candy. While we wait there was a question that came in via the Web.

Are the A&L Interoperability Specifications based on the NEMA standard efforts? Ted?

TED BOHN: Well again, on the Interoperability for the open charge point protocol we are not working on that. We are basically collecting input and the CEC and other groups are leading that.

As far as the EDSE to PVE interlock, that is based on the SAE standard and yes, that would—the NEMA people would follow the SE standards. But again, the NEMA group is working on interoperability of access systems. And again that's a very politically charged thing to get consensus because there a lot of business models are based on the manual feed.

TED BOHN: I think yes, to the best of our ability.

SANDRA LOI: Thanks Ted. Any questions on the phone lines, Candy?

COORDINATOR: We're showing no questions. As a reminder it is star 1 please.

SANDRA LOI: Great. We just had another one come in from Jonah Hamilton. Let's see, it says—the question that came in is, I've heard rumors there have been issues between some EVs and EVSEs that the EVs do not communicate properly with a charge from the EVSE.

How does that happen and what is being done to fix it?

TED BOHN: So I can handle that one. So the answer is it's not a rumor it's 100% fact. People have issues, they just don't put it on the front page news to say we have problems. Usually they whisper, we've got a problem; what do we do about it?

So usually when a manufacturer finds an issue they bring it up to the SAE Committee. We discuss the root cause and of course we don't assess blame, but we assess responsibility for fixing it.

So I'll give you an example that SPX which is now Bosch, had an issue with the test loads, that they had a difference in opinion on how they interpreted the voltage level.

And because test load let's just say, a more and more motivated company they say it's not our problem; you change your charge stations. And so because SPX and Bosch is a very customer oriented company, they changed their sign.

So, that's usually what happens is if there's a difference of opinion or difference of interpretation; and that's what this work is clearly about is we refine the thresholds and we close loopholes or ambiguities on how one might look at it—might look at one requirement two different ways and both be right.

SANDRA LOI: Great, thanks, Ted. We had another question come in. I think this one is for Matt. How much longer is data collection planned for the EV project?

MATT SHIRK: Actually I don't—I'm not the lead guy in charge of that so I'm not sure about the answer to your question.

TED BOHN: This is Ted. I can give an answer that I was given when I asked that same question about three months ago because the project was supposed to wind down.

And I said, "Well all this stuff is still working. Is someone going to keep collecting data?" And at the time Nissan said yes, they would.

And so from the Nissan side they said that they would keep collecting that information. I think it Eve Fatale's people said as well that they would find a method for the telecommunications provider to keep accruing the data even though it wouldn't be necessarily processed by INL, it would still be archived.

SANDRA LOI: Great, thanks, Ted. Any phone questions, Candy?

COORDINATOR: We do. And as a reminder for others, press star 1 for questions. We have Sarah. Your line is open.

SARAH ALEXA: Hi, this is Sarah Alexa from DOE. My question is about the number four on your conclusions Ted about the new systems that can be utilized with—given the changes in NEC-625.

Do you know if any companies have been working on this and whether there are any new products in the market? I noticed that you said that it was the Proof of Concept stage, and I was just wondering if there was anything out there available that's going in this direction.

TED BOHN: Good question, and unfortunately ABB has a proprietary method that they're tying to their DC charging stations so basically they're offering it as an accessory.

But once they already have 50 or 100 kilowatt installed, when that's not being used they can diversify and charge other systems. So, that's very similar but it's nowhere near this—you have to add a whole bunch of zeros.

The same thing goes with DBTs. So they originally had—theirs was $7000 per station per car, and they came out with their Eco unit which was on $3600 per car to do the slave units, and that didn't include the master controller.

So the answer is some companies are proposing it, but it would be a $50,000 plus install to do this. And so, you know, it's not that it's not doable, and the same goes with Delta Products.

So each of them will have a Smart EVSE. The price tag is generally $50,000 to $75,000 because you're tying it into a building management system. Some of them want $20,000 alone for the software.

So this would run under the Smart Energy profile 2.0 for open ADR. And so this controller that you see on the left on that image that's up, this is what this company's product is. They haven't given it a price yet because they're trying to figure out what the market price will bear.

But when you say is anybody doing this, yes we're working jointly with as an application specific product for just this; for workplace charging and banking things together.

The dynamic allocation, there are a few EVSEs that can do that now, but it takes a lot of software and linkage. And this one again, if anybody knows RS-45, it's just a twisted pair wire that goes through all the EVSEs and EUMDs.

So the measurement systems, the EVSE controllers, and there's a really small micro controller that's about a quarter of this size, it's something about the size of an audio cassette or an iPhone, controls the system. So you can see, it's very small.

And the other thing I didn't have time to mention is that they can be autonomous. So this OCPP protocol, say what happens if the Cloud goes dark? Like what if I can't access the database that says you actually work here, do I not get the charge? And it turns out all those records are locally managed as well.

So there are a lot of people who put a lot of thought into this but yes, there are people that are going to be come probably next year.

COORDINATOR: Thank you. Next question, Laura Suchinsky, your line is open.

LAURA SUCHINSKY: Hello?

COORDINATOR: Laura, your line is open, go ahead please.

LAURA SUCHINSKY: Sorry, I was trying to switch to my head set. I hope you can hear me clearly.

I work for the City of San Jose and we've installed 49 chargers; mostly Level 2 chargers, and I really appreciate Ted's work both on the interoperability but also strategies to maximize the charging infrastructure at the lowest cost.

But as a City we're trying to figure out where things are likely to go in the next maybe two to five years given all the work that's being done on battery development.

Will we need to have as many level 2 chargers out in the public sphere in the next two years as we're trying to put out now given where things are going?

Do you have any sense about where things are going long term and what might be the best things to be thinking about as we plan for the future?

TED BOHN: Yes, and that gets right back to the whole social side of the question of what are you doing when you're using public charging?

So, some people—again, I focus mainly on multifamily dwelling which your car is here 20 something hours of the day, and workplace charging which is there, you know, between four and eight hours in one spot.

If you are out and about at a mall or some other place, you're not going to be there more than an hour, so you would want to get your maximum number of miles per that hour that you're at that station because again, there is more of a convenience issue than a fuel disbursement issue.

And one thing that people forget is that small batteries plug in hybrid vehicles—PHEVs, are the most effective use of the battery.

So, big battery vehicles are nice, but as far as bang for the bucks, a small battery vehicle that you fill more often takes better advantage and more utilization of the battery you paid for.

So even though the plug-in Prius has the smallest battery, filling it the most often turns out to be the most expedient way to get a larger segment of the—let's just say the leading edge people who will pay extra money for that function will actually use it.

So again, a lot of people think that the biggest vehicle needs the most fuel. It does, but you do that at home.

In the field the smallest battery vehicle, almost like a Hummingbird, needs to eat all the time.

And so Level 2 would serve those functions in a 20 to, you know, again if it has a three kilowatt hour—a three kilowatt charger then you would want to charge at three kilowatts.

And again, Level 1 tops out at about 1800 watts, so that is a factor of differences. And when people say well it's not that many watts difference, its two X.

So to answer your question, things are headed towards use your infrastructure as much as possible. Every time someone plugs—pulls up into a spot, you'd like them to use it every spot rather than assets that aren't used because people feel that they're going to stay there longer or something.

Anyway as I said, the social question of what are you doing when you want to charge and what type of people need to charge versus want to charge because again, a plug-in hybrid vehicle doesn't need to charge but they want to charge.

LAURA SUCHINSKY: Thanks.

COORDINATOR: Thank you. Currently we're showing no further questions from the phone. As a reminder for questions press star 1.

SANDRA LOI: Great, thank you. We did have a few more come in on the Web. The next question I have here is what should a city consider when trying to decide to install Level 2 or DC Fast Charge stations?

TED BOHN: I guess unless Matt wants that one I'll just say that OCPP access control—it's this in the bottom of this slide, so all these different services. If you can get it such that they would have cross-functional access control because again, most charge—and again people have to make a living. So anybody who's a sales person I don't want to insult them, but any salesman would say you need to buy only my product.

And in fact if you've deployed my competitor's product you should take that out and deploy more of my product.

And so that's going to be the issue is if you have a diversity of products, how do they work together and how do your customers—or how do the users in the city actually access that.

And so if it's a bundled system that it's free like if it's at the mall and you would say I would like more people to do more shopping, because that was one of Home Depot's, you know, the point that people from Home Depot made a while ago in why they put in three EVSEs.

For every extra half hour they can get you to stay at Home Depot was another $50 of materials they estimate that you will buy. So that's a pretty straightforward. I give you 30 to 50 cents of electricity for that half hour right; I sell $50 worth of product possibly.

So that would be the better case on if you can have businesses that would benefit from those charge stations that it would be a quid pro quo. But if you're doing public infrastructure in a city you would say why are my city—what are my city—my taxpayers, what do they want from that?

And so parking ramps would be the most obvious place. If you're parking and you're coming downtown for a show or whatever; some civic function, you'd want to access that.

So I live in Madison and again, MG&E is our local utility and they went piece by piece, every time they deployed more charging stations they studied who used it and made an educated guess at where else they should unintelligible, parking ramps, ramps, the zoo, the mall, high volume grocery stores, right. Those are places that are pretty obvious.

And now Level 2 DC combo chargers at gas stations that are near the interstate, so that's typical of what people do, they pull off the interstate and they would try to go to the, you know, nearly the first gas station they see when they get off the interstate and then they get back out again.

So I thought that was very wise of them to put it at a gas station near the off ramp on the interstate.

MATT SHIRK: Yes I'd like to add to that, just to say I did promise you I'd point you to the website here with some of the lessons learned documentation from EV project.

If you go to theevproject.com/documents.php, that link is also available by going through the—to the dome page of the EV Project and clicking on overview and then clicking on a link on the right, EV Project documents. It just backs up a lot of the information we talked about today.

And to Ted's point, travel corridors versus intra-city travel are very, very different. Utilities served by each of those so I think it depends a lot on the, you know, whether it's inter-city or intra-city, what are the distances, what are the commuting patterns; there are a lot of factors that go into it so, whether or not to say.

You can look at the costs involved and that might be one limiting factor, but it's more based on usage needs.

SANDRA LOI: Great, thank you. Candy any more phone questions?

COORDINATOR: We do. And as a quick reminder for questions on the phone, press star 1. We have Bill Boyce, your line is open.

BILL BOYCE: Good afternoon. A quick kind of—I want to go back to war though. I mean a lot of cities I think are trying to make a decision do they invest in DC Fast Charging for public or more Level 2, and Ted you kind of went in the Level 2 direction, but yet Matt's data showed that the utilization rate is much higher for the DC Fast Charging.

Do you think we have enough DC Fast Charging to kind of settle that debate to kind of help some of the civic planning?

And then a comment I have on the DC Fast Charging installation costs, we in pursuing that, one of the costs that you don't have in there I think is the design cost. So having, you know, a design package that you have to go get permitted. I don't see really reflected in those installation costs but wanted to get your opinions on public charging DC versus Level 2.

TED BOHN: So Matt, do you want to go first?

MATT SHIRK: Yes, yes I guess I will. Well I suppose in terms of costs for design, I am not 100% sure. I know it's not—some of what's not entailed in the cost for the 99 units that we presented today, however in terms of having an engineer design whether it's in a city downtown, I think it's more of the contractor cost that were included in that.

So I really can't speak to what portion of the cost would be driven by design needs. I mean that's your question for that part, correct?

BILL BOYCE: My comment is I don't think your installation costs include the upfront engineering design work and it's kind of a little bit misleading. To get one of those installed somebody has got to produce a set of prints and those prints and bells almost cost you about 20 grand.

MATT SHIRK: Well that's something I'll look into and I'll see, I'm not sure if there's a great way to communicate and answer back to you all after the fact.

Sandra, is that something we can—I'll find out what's involved in those costs a little more—in a little bit more detail. Is that something we can somehow communicate back to the coordinators?

LINDA BLUESTEIN: I think Sandra can probably send any information you have on that to the list of people who tuned in to the webinar.

MATT SHIRK: Okay.

SANDRA LOI: Yes, absolutely Matt. Once you have that together we can send that out.

MATT SHIRK: Yes, I'll get an answer to you on that and I'll also get you the answer that I should have already on the—either the duration of the project, at least as planned right now.

BILL BOYCE: Okay, and them the second question then was trying to guesstimate out into the future if investing in DC Fast Charging is a better investment versus—or Level 2.

MATT SHIRK: You know all I can offer is the data on what's been done to date. When it comes down to the business case, every single installation is going to have to have a separate business case whether it's 100% financial or it's driven by other motives. I mean that's really on a case by case basis. I don't see how—I honestly don't believe I can answer that question broadly.

As you can see, given the hardware costs alone, DC Fast Charging is significantly more expensive than the Level 2 but no, I don't know if that question can be answered directly.

TED BOHN: And I was going to say, it's like the stock market. You don't put everything into one stock and that's the one I'm going to bet everything on.

And so what I'm assuming before on that slide was that most of the new EVSEs have multiple protocol output. So they have both Level 2 AC, Level 1 DC, and so if you look in the upper left you can see it says combo charger which is the SAE and ISSO standard.

On the right is the to demo standard which some vehicles have. If you look in the lower right you can see the DDT unit has everything. It has DC, AC, some are going to have wireless on it, and so whatever your equipment vendor sells.

And that's what I was saying in the upper right you see the island. So this is at the Fashion Mall in San Diego and this is going to be released—revealed; whatever they call it, a big hoopla, at Plug-in 2013 next week. But you can see the and AeroVironment in the middle and on the right is the ABB unit.

It's not shown in this photo, at the left there are a bunch of AC charging stations that are tied to the same kiosk as the DC charging station. And so this diversification of your installed infrastructure I think is going to be the key.

But when you pay for a certain amount of electricity and a certain amount of islands and bollards and all those other things that you said for your ground work and permitting and again, design approval costs, you know, they can add up to tens of thousands of dollars.

You like to have as many customers served in as many ways as you can. Again, that's the business case. Is it bundled with the facility, is it a per customer fee based on convenience and not actual delivered energy?

But the answer is right now, the only DC Charging vehicles that you may buy, with the exception of a few people that's parked with that, I don't even think the outlet—so the sparks that are being delivered with the DC Fast Charging port are not enabled yet because they're still working through the standards, stabilizing the differences between what is called the IC15-118 communications standard and the DINS pack which is the DIN70121.

And all these different variations, once they release vehicles they have to go back and support and update them. A lot of people are holding off until the dust settles.

The point is in the next 12 to 24 months there will be a lot of vehicles with DC Fast Charge ports. And each of these manufacturers; I know I see like eight, are going to have products on the market that they're going to have multiple outlets that will serve multiple customers.

So you don't have to decide which one; it will serve all, almost like the liquid fueling pumps of diesel, ethanol, biodiesel, mid-grade, high grade gasoline. Now you have to decide what do your customers want and them what are they willing to pay for, or what kind of value can I add if I'm a community paying for it on the taxpayer's dollar.

LINDA BLUESTEIN: I wanted to just point out—this is Linda Bluestein with DOE—that we also have a lot of reports from cities that were under our planning grants, our EV Community Readiness Planning Grants that did planning for electric vehicle infrastructure in their communities and looked at a distribution of different types of systems and also a lot off demographic data and information about—that instructed them and informed them where the best locations to put charging equipment were.

And also maybe gave them some guidance in terms of after looking at the data in terms of, you know, what—how many they would need for the community based on a lot of different data and information like demographics and current hybrid users and things like that; early adopters.

So I would highly recommend that when Sandra Loi puts out the information about the webinar that you also go into the Community Readiness Grant section of the website. And there are some very good data surveys and studies that were done.

And, you know, people had gotten the regional planning offices involved in this well, to make some decisions here and to map out where the locations would be and what type of locations you needed.

And some of those include the Delaware Valley Regional Clean Cities coalition. I'm sorry, the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, and there were several others in the mix as well and so I'd highly recommend going into that.

And we're going to have a reader's guide available within the next few weeks that should be very instructive as to which projects went into that type of data and how to extract it in your community and do the necessary planning to make sure that you're not over-spending or putting in too many sites or the wrong type.

SANDRA LOI: Candy, do we have additional phone questions?

COORDINATOR: We're showing no questions at this time. As a reminder, parties may press star 1 please.

SANDRA LOI: Okay great, thank you. Let's see we have a couple—let's see what we have here.

I know we may have discussed this a little bit but, I'll throw it out there if anyone has anything additional or maybe if we didn't touch on it.

So a question that came in asking if there are any pointers on appropriate charging levels 1, 2, and 3 to installment at an airport to meet needs of shift work employees short-term and long-term parking customers, and how to recover costs based on different charging profiles.

TED BOHN: So I guess I'll take one. That was the point of my last slides on if you assume someone is going to be there for a long time then you want to put in the lowest cost infrastructure such that you're serving one customer with a very cheap piece of equipment versus having a higher—let's say a $1000 to $2000 piece of equipment that could charge the vehicle faster, but you have all day to serve that customer.

So the diversification of the load; again non-continuous loads would allow you to serve many spots with one branch; with one modest branch circuit. Again, a 50 kilowatt circuit is neither big nor small.

But just to say if I have a $20,000 budget, if I were willing to forego a whole bunch of frills and do everything on line, again do all these things that you see all these things that are on the screen right now have touch screens on there, those are the things that add cost.

And so there's an activity from DOE called FOA556 which is reducing the cost by half of a Smart EVSE. So this dynamic load management function usually doubles the cost of the electric vehicle charging station.

So if you just pull a number out of the air, if it was $1500, if you make it a Smart Charger then it becomes $3000 by adding this extra computer.

And so if you would say that module that was on the previous slide, if all the smarts are in there but your access to the smarts are on your phone or some Web interface, it pulls a lot of cost out of the product, especially when you're trying to put in tens or dozens of shift worker charging stalls.

Because again, they only need—typically they don't need 50 miles of charging range, it's only tens of miles. Its only tens of miles and that would be single, less than ten kilowatts usually. Nobody comes to work—most work don't go to work empty. They have enough to get home. And what they would like to do is go someplace else while they're at work.

In the interim that might be one of the tipping points and why I'm very excited about multifamily dwelling and workplace charging is that maybe the tipping point that helps decide do they get a plug-in vehicle or a hybrid or a commercial fuel vehicle, if there were an extra infrastructure at work it would make it possible for them, almost like an island in the middle of the ocean all right, that lets them go further out into the ocean versus if they only had a car that had 70 miles range and they might not do much with that car.

But if they had a full charge at the end of work they could do a lot more things after their work or whatever it is ending.

SANDRA LOI: Great, thanks, Ted. Any additional phone questions?

COORDINATOR: We're showing no questions from the phone.

SANDRA LOI: Okay. I just received another one on the Web here. Has there been any discussion on charging stations like design guidelines for DC Fast Charge designs?

With the variety of locations we're charging part locations on vehicles DC Fast Charger positioning the service. Any type of vehicle can be difficult when mangled parking spaces are used for charging vehicles.

TED BOHN: So yes. So the vehicle OEMs tried to get consensus and they couldn't because it was a style thing. So they wanted everybody to have the same inlet in the same spot such that you could do that.

And there's parallel parking, there's diagonal parking. Some spots in some cities make you back into a stall, so it becomes very difficult. You can see most of these have overhead cable strings where the cord comes out the top of the charge station.

Some have fairly generous cords that they are about 20 feet long. And you can see the ABB unit on the top right has a fairly long cord site.

Now it's a very large heavy cord for the DC Fast Charge, but for other ones you can see the DBT unit in the lower right that has a counter balance on it. So there's a little handle with strings that you basically pull the cord closer to your vehicle.

So, that's typically what some of the charge stations do is they have a little counter balance built into it that helps you. For instance if you had to put the cord over the hood of your car to make it reach, that would help you do that.

But as far as the Level 2 charging stations, there are different styles. And for me, one of the things that I'm doing at the Interoperability Center at Argonne Lab is locate tripping hazards.

Once people just say if you see a cord don't trip over it right, and it's like a safety plan being don't get hurt. That's not a plan; that's a helpful suggestion. What you have to do is have people, where the cord comes down from overhead

And so those different EVSEs that have motorized winding units that actually pull the cord back in, some come down just like the microphone in the boxing arena where when your car pulls up the microphone or in this case the charging handle comes down to the vehicle.

And because it comes in from above you don't—A, you don't trip over it and B, it's easy to access left or right of your car. So, there's a lot of different solutions offered on cord handlers. And usually they have a motorized winding unit or a counter balance or something in there.

Again it all add costs, but not a lot of cost. Usually on the older 100s are less than $1,000. For some installation $1,000 is a big deal. People say one lawsuit; it's a no-brainer. You would have the safest cord handling unit.

Again, that's one of my personal concerns is people put the charge station on the sidewalk and they don't realize that people walk where they put the cord. And, you know, as I said before, don't trip is not a helpful suggestion.

LINDA BLUESTEIN: We have on the Community Readiness peg that Sandra will send you, ADA Guidelines; a report on that. Somebody synthesized a report on that for a couple of the projects that we did that talked about the tripping hazards and designing for ADA compliance.

In addition, a couple of the projects included highly graphical design diagrams and information that would be useful for others to look at, including the Northeast states did a project under NICERTA and they have a highly graphical guide to designing spaces for electric vehicle charging. So, I would highly recommend looking at those as templates.

SANDRA LOI: Any additional phone questions?

COORDINATOR: We're showing no questions at this time.

SANDRA LOI: All right. There was a question that came in online about wiring. So one of the slides mentioned required wiring. How about requiring raceway or conduit as an alternative to actual wiring?

TED BOHN: Well I mean that's electrical code thing. So for instance in building installations you would use a raceway.

So the diagram that I showed where the 20 parking stalls are connected together, some electricians would install a raceway or would have a very elegant conduit rather than individual runs to the panel board.

But again, different cities allow different functions. Different building locations would allow you to use a lower labor rate.

The same with trenching. So the one thing I didn't mention was that the data lines have to be run separately from the power wires. And so one of the things that are allowed under a Section 770 I think, is to run fiber optic with the power leads.

And so if you do need wired communication, you can avoid using copper leads by using fiber optics that are pulled in with the power leads.

So again, there are a lot of interesting rules that if people know how to interpret their electrical codes cam optimize it

So for instance at Argonne Lab, I'll give you an example. I got charged $10,000 to tunnel under a parking lot of a historical building, so I couldn't cut a trench because it was a historical site at Argonne Labs. It was the first peace time nuclear reactor building so I wasn't allowed to cut a trench so I had to tunnel under the parking lot—$10,000 to put in my wire for the EVSE.

I wanted to put data communication and monitor and control it; that was another $10,000 just for the data wire versus if I had put in maybe $50 worth of fiber optics.

So you know in that case that code was very handy because I wasn't going to be able to do a directional bore on a second run. So again, people who do this installation know a lot of the costs and they know a lot of ways to avoid very large charges. Because again when you have a budget that usually cuts into the number of vehicles you can serve.

LINDA BLUESTEIN: I think we're ready to wrap things up; it's almost 2:30. So Sandra, can you explain what happens and that you'll send out the information to everybody.

SANDRA LOI: Yes, absolutely. So thank you all for participating today. I will be sending out an email to those who participated on today's webinar actually in the next few days with links to the EV Community Readiness Projects, as well as the EV Project, and also links to the webinar which has been recorded today, and to that recording as well as a copy of this PDF of each of these PowerPoint slides for your reference after the fact.

And should you have any questions afterwards, feel free to contact myself, Sandra Loi, or Linda Bluestein and we're happy to answer or pass along the questions to the appropriate contracts.

LINDA BLUESTEIN: And I want to thank today's speakers, Matt Shirk with Idaho National Laboratory, and Ted Bohn with Argonne National Laboratory. I thought they were great presentations with a lot of great information.

And again, we'll help you follow up with them if you need—if you have extra questions. Thank you.

COORDINATOR: Thank you for your participation. That does conclude today's conference. You may disconnect at this time.