The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) also awards cooperative agreements to businesses, industries, universities, and others. Cooperative agreements are similar to grants, but they require more involvement on the part of the federal government. In work performed through cooperative agreements, the federal government exercises more control in technical implementation. This may include project collaboration, participation in project management, or intervention in the activity. The nature and extent of involvement is outlined in a "statement of substantial involvement" included in the financial opportunity announcement.
Like grants, most cooperative agreements are awarded on a competitive basis.