U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Geothermal Technologies Office

Low-Temperature and Co-produced Geothermal Resources

The Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) works with industry, academia, and national laboratories to develop and deploy new low-temperature and co-production technologies that will help the geothermal community achieve widespread adoption of under-utilized low-temperature resources.

The Energy Department recently announced $3 million for research and development to help grow U.S. low-to-moderate-temperature geothermal resources and support a domestic supply of critical materials. To learn about this financial opportunity, including application details, watch this recording of our webinar below:

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Presentation slidePDF.

Low-Temperature and Co-Produced Geothermal Projects Nationwide


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Low-temperature geothermal energy is defined as heat obtained from the geothermal fluid in the ground at temperatures of 300°F (150°C) or less. These resources are typically used in direct-use applications, such as district heating, greenhouses, fisheries, mineral recovery, and industrial process heating. However, some low-temperature resources can be harnessed to generate electricity using binary cycle electricity generating technology.

Hot geothermal fluid is a byproduct of many oil and gas wells within the United States, and 25 billion barrels of it are produced each year. Historically this hot water has been an inconvenience and a disposal issue; however, it is now being looked at as a resource to produce electricity for field use or to be sold to the grid. These and other co-produced geothermal resources have the potential to produce significant amounts of baseload electricity at low costs and with near zero emissions.

GTO is working toward a goal of achieving widespread production of low-temperature power by 2020 through surface and down-hole technology advances, improved education and outreach, and increased collaboration between government and industry.

R&D Activities

GTO's R&D efforts regarding low-temperature geothermal resources are focused on the analysis of resource potential, power production capabilities, improved working fluids, innovative cooling technologies, and oil and gas field co-production opportunities. 

Learn about recent success on new working fluids cut a wider swath of geothermal reserves here, and other details on GTO-funded projects related to low-temperature, co-produced, and geopressured resources.

NEW! DOE issued a Notice of Intent to invest in research to cultivate strategic minerals from geothermal brines. Strategic materials could create new revenue streams for geothermal energy development. Find out more.

Strategic Action Plan

The Low-Temperature, Co-produced, and Geopressured Geothermal Technologies Strategic Action Plan presents an agenda for the Low-Temperature and Co-produced subprogram to efficiently and effectively leverage its resources in support of the geothermal community's goals and priorities. This action plan is based upon the input of experts in the geothermal industry. Implementing the action plan will help provide the geothermal community with the means to develop and widely deploy economically viable, innovative, and scalable technologies.

More Resources

Low-Temperature Article

The April 2013 issue of Power Engineering magazine featured an article by GTO physical scientist Tim Reinhardt about New Ways to Produce Geothermal Power at Lower Temperatures.

Technology Planning Workshop

GTO held a Technology Roadmapping Workshop on July 13-14, 2010 in Golden, Colorado, to focus strategically on accelerating the use of low-temperature, co-produced, and geopressured geothermal power in the United States. The workshop generated the information that supported the development of the Strategic Action Plan.

Presentations and other materials from the workshop:

Low-Temperature Webinar

On November 18, 2010, GTO's Tim Reinhardt presented a webinar to members of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. The webinar provided an overview of the state of low-temperature geothermal resources, and presented case studies and examples of co-production with oil and gas production.