U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Fuel Cell Technologies Office
Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop
The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop in Phoenix, Arizona February 1-2, 2005. Attendees included representatives from fuel cell manufacturers, researchers, and government officials.
Transportation and stationary fuel cells need to operate in environments where ambient temperatures will fall below 0°C. Surprisingly little data exist to quantify the effects of sub-freezing temperatures on fuel cell operations. The goals of the Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop were to predict the likely effects of freezing temperatures on fuel cell operation, to identify and prioritize the technical barriers associated with freezing or sub-freezing temperatures and to develop an RD&D plan to overcome these barriers. Results of this workshop will most likely be a topic in an FY 2006 solicitation to be released by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office.
The proceedings of the Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader.
DOE Program/Targets and Workshop Objectives, Nancy Garland, DOE Hydrogen Program
Fundamental Issues in Subzero PEMFC Startup and Operation, Glenn Skala, General Motors
Fundamental Issues in Subzero PEMFC Startup and Operation, Jeremy Meyers, UTC Fuel Cells
Stationary Applications and Freeze/Thaw Challenges, Richard Gaylord, Plug Power
Low Temperature Proton Conductivity, Tom Zawodzinski, Case Western Reserve University
Membranes and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures, Phil Ross, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
MEA and Interfacial Issues in Low Temperature Fuel Cells, Bryan Pivovar, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Startup of PEFC Stacks From Sub-Freezing Temperatures, R. K. Ahluwalia and X. Wang, Argonne National Laboratory
Open Discussion of Freeze Related Issues, Doug Wheeler (moderator), National Renewable Energy Laboratory
A Study on Performance Degradation of PEMFC by Water Freezing, EunAe Cho, Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Fuel Cell Freeze Startup and Landscape of FC Freeze Patents, Ahmad Pesaran, Tony Markel, Gi-Heon Kim, Keith Wipke, National Renewable Energy Laboratory