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Product Details


TitleFundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves
DescriptionOperating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.
File Name 
Product TypeReport/Plans
URL http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/58491.pdf
Num of Pages57
Document SizePDF 2.6 MB
First Received8/12/2013 2:48:47 PM
Program NameEnergy Analysis
KeywordsREF, operating reserves
Print Date7/1/2013 12:00:00 AM
Product ID6453
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