Overcoming Common Pitfalls: Energy Efficient Lighting Projects (Text Version)

Marian Fuller: Hello, everyone and welcome to the DOE technical assistance program webinar Overcoming Common Pitfalls - Energy Efficient Lighting Projects. Our presenters today are Heidi Steward from Pacific Northwest National Laboratories. And Jeffrey Schwartz from ICS international. We will be taking questions at the end of the presentation.

And if you want, you can type these questions into the question box and we will address them at the end of the presentation. But, before we jump in, I want to take a few moments to describe the DOE Technical Assistance program a little bit further, TAP, the Technical Assistance Program is managed by a team in DOE's weatherization and intergovernmental programs office of energy efficiency and renewable energy.

The Department of Energy's Technical Assistance Program provides state, local and tribal officials the tools and resources needed to implement successful and sustainable clean energy programs. This effort is aimed at accelerating the implementation of recovery X projects and programs, improving their performance, increasing their return on and sustainability of recovery act investments and building protracted clean energy capacity at the state, local and tribal level.

For one on one assistance to an extensive resource library to facilitation of peer exchange of best practices and lessons learned, TAP offers a wide range of resources to serve the needs of state, local, and tribal officials and their states. These technical assistance providers can provide short term, unbiased expertise, and energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, program design, and implementation, financing, performance contracting, state and local capacity building, and in addition to providing one on one assistance, we are able to work with grantees at no cost to facility peer to peer matching, workshops and training.

We also encourage you to utilize the TAP log, a program that allows states, cities, counties and tribes to connect with technical and program experts and share best practices. The blog is frequently updated with energy efficiency or renewable energy related posts. We encourage you to utilize the blog, to ask questions of your topical experts, share your success stories, best practices, or lessons learned or interact with your peers.

We also encourage you to visit the solutions center, where you can request direct technical assistance online via the technical assistance center, once a request has been submitted, it will be evaluated to determine the level and type of assistance TAP will provide. And now I am going to turn over the presentation to Heidi Steward for lighting technology overview.

Heidi Steward: Hi, I'm Heidi Steward. I'm a lighting certified research engineer at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. I've spent six years at the lab and the last four, I've been working at the caliber program as part of the solid state lighting commercialization support program for the department of energy. I've also just joined the rule making group and I'm working on new HID test procedures to help the United States move forward in the energy efficient world.

I'm here to give you an overview of the technologies most frequently used in roadways, parking lots, parking garages, areas you will be likely to implement energy programs. Jeff will talk more about the application of those sources. So here are the sources I'm going to talk about: High intensity discharge lamps, low pressure discharge lamps, like florescent and solid state lighting which is also known as LEDs. Of course, the most energy efficient light is when it's actually turned off, so we'll look at some different methods of controlling when a luminaire is off, on, or set to a lower output.

There are a few things that we need to look at across all of the source types, reliability and maintenance. And then for backup we have some references so you can check up on what I've told you. Let's start off with a little lighting nerd vocabulary. Two words for you, luminaire and lamp. In lighting parlance, a luminaire is our name for lighting fixture. A lamp is what non lighting nerds would call a light bulb.

So, for example, we are going to be talking about HID lamps that might be installed in roadway luminaries. So, we'll start with HID lamps, high intensity discharge. These are the most commonly used source type in the outdoor lighting market and they've been around for a long time. Mercury vapor is the typical residential security light or barn light. It was developed in the 1930's. You'll recognize the greenish blue glow. The CRI or color rending or how well it shows colors on a scale of 1 to 100 is low, typically about 15 out 100, up to 50 with special coatings.

The real reason they were used to replace incandescent lamps was because although they are a bit more efficient than incandescent, they have a very long life, about 16,000 to 24,000 hours, though they do dim drastically over that time period. EPAC 2005 banned the sale of most mercy vapor ballasts, so these are only about 10 percent of the current HID market. High pressure sodium or HPS is that orange street light that shines in your bedroom at night. It's not my favorite color. It was developed in the 1960's, as you know if you've ever tried to find your car in an HPS lit yellow parking lot, the color rendering is very bad, about 22 out of a scale of 100.

It does have the highest efficacy of the HID lamps from 60 to over 140 lumens per watt. A regular incandescent lamp runs about 10 lumens per watt, so 140 is very good. It also has a very long life of 24,000 to 30,000 hours. In places where color is less important, the energy efficiency can still make a very good case for HPS, for example, if you have side road with a speed limit of 35 and all that's really needed is to see the edge of the road, HPS can be very effective. These are about 40 percent of the current market. Metal halide is a much whiter light and is often seen on highways on very high poles.

It was developed in the 60's after high pressure sodium. It has both exterior and interior uses. Its color rending can be quite good in outdoor applications, usually about 65 out of 100. Indoor versions can be closer to 90. The metal halide efficacy is high from 60 to 110 lumens per watt and its life is long, at 10,000 to 20,000 hours. This runs about 50 percent of the outdoor market. These lamps do tend to shift in color over time, sometimes getting pinker, other times getting bluer. There are advances happening in metal halide. Metal halide starts up faster than probe start. Also, ___ ceramic metal halide is the newest with much better color control and performance.

Low pressure sodium is seen in two places, in infrequently as legacy streetlights and more often near observatories where specific color is emits can be ignored by the computers and cameras looking at the stars. They have a characteristic butterscotchy yellow color, like the amber of a yellow traffic light. This is a very small portion of the market.

Low pressure discharge lamps are used much less frequently in outdoor applications. They are often affected by cool temperatures and not in a good way. We just talked about low pressure sodium, which is very limited in use. Florescence in linear form, which means tubes, like in the ceiling of an office building, would you believe these were invented in the 1930's. They can have good color renderings, 70 to 90 out of 100.

They can also have a very high efficacy. Many are at or above 90 lumens per watt, but in most outdoor applications, fluorescents with lower efficacy and color rendering are used. Their typical life can last from 24,000 to 36,000 hours, again, very long. In the outdoor market, you will find them in parking garages around gas stations, that type of application. In general, they really don't like cold. They won't start.

And they are only a small percentage of the total outdoor market. Compact fluorescent are less efficient and live a shorter life, about 60 lumens per watt and about 12 to 16,000 hours. But it's still a lot more efficient and a lot longer life than regular incandescent lamps. This is a very small part of the outdoor market. Induction is the new guy on the block. It was developed in the 60's. Those lighting engineers were really busy then. Regular fluorescents use a ballast to make an initial lightening bolt or plasma arc to excite the phosphorous in the lamp to make it glow. The induction lamp is similar to a fluorescent, but it uses a magnetic field to incite the phosphorus instead.

These have a high color rendering index, 80 out of 100. Their efficacy is very good at 90 lumens per watt and the typical life is very long at 100,000 hours. Here the lower two photos are those of the two major vendors, versions of inductions, the QL looks like a really big light bulb with a lamp and the Istron looks like a fluorescent tube built into a rectangle. Many of our downtown decorative street lights in Portland, Oregon are induction, they use the QL.

Now, I could talk for days about solid stat lighting, so I'll try not to drive you two nuts. Solid state lightening has three subsets, OLEDs, organic light emitting diodes and quantum dots really aren't used in the outdoor market so we won't talk about them. LEDs are the new technology that works well in outdoor settings. Colored LEDs have been around a long time, since the 1960's of course. White LEDs are much newer. They've only been around since the 90's and in real applications levels, only the last few years.

The color rendering of these can go as high as the 90's, but for outdoor applications, many are still in the 70's. The efficacy is good, and getting better from 70 lumens per watt and up. They haven't been around long enough for us to know how long the fixtures will really last. In a lab, the LEDs should last at least 50,000 hours. In a fixture or a luminaire it depends on how well it is heat synced. So look at the heat sync in the middle picture there, just the heat sync weighs 22 pounds, I weighed it.

That's a parking garage luminaire. A street light above it is used in a park and ride lot near my house. It's fun to check the lot and see that you can tell what color the cars are. Also, LEDs like the cool. It makes them good for out doors. LEDs are resistant to vibration. There is no filament to break and not electrodes to rust. There are some great LED products out there and of course, there are even more junky ones. Jeff will tell you more about how to look for good products. I have resources in a few slides, so we'll give you even more information about LEDs.

As I said before the least expensive and most energy efficient luminaire is the one that is off, so make sure you are using luminaries only when you need them. Here are some ways to help do that. Also, they don't have to be just on or off. With more outdoor lighting, you can also have a low versus high setting so the light doesn't have to be all the way off if you need some light still. We'll look at time based controls first.

An astronomical time clock can operate your luminaries on a seasonal basis. This cuts down on the amount of changes that have to be made by hand. It knows what to do when the time changes. Time of day use is an adaptive method. You can dim the luminaries when you expect a lower need. For example, when the store's closed, you might need some light on the parking lot, but only dim. That could go from 11 to 2. City ordinances might then require light levels to go off after 2 am. This regular series would be easily set.

Daylight based controls use sensors to figure out when more light is needed. Photo cells are used to recognize when it's dark enough that the parking lot luminaries are needed. My car does this for my headlights too, I love it. They can also be used to tell when there's enough daylight so our luminaries can dim. For example, on the exterior edges of parking garages, if it's bright outside, you might not need as much electric light on the outer edge as you do in the middle.

Time based and daylight based controls can be used together to minimize your energy use and get light where you need it, when you need it. Occupancy sensors are another great control. They can be infrared - is there a body passing by that's warmer than the room or parking garage? Put on a light. Infrared sensors are passive, they receive information. Ultrasonic and microwave sensors are active. They send out waves and act based on what changes and information comes back.

These work better for infrared if the line of sight is obstructed by walls or around corners. Any of these can be used in conjunction with a time based and daylight based controls as well. Think about a parking lot at a large multi-building business. The majority of people have gone home by 8 p.m. You can probably dim the lights, but of course, there is always that guy that had to work late, so when he comes out, the lights can bump back up to a high level. Fixed amount of time after he's gone, you can tell because the moving cars are out of the light so the lights can go back to dim. After 2 am, the next step of dimming down to keep the municipality happy. This is a great use of controls.

With controls, the luminaries can be kept track of and singled individually. They can let you know when a lamp is out. They can report the number of hours they were lit at what levels. As a safety mechanism, they can be used to flash in an area where there is a problem. They can also be used to light an evacuation route. Computers, together with luminaries are so much fun.

So here is an example of a lovely parking lot with a high low control. Just over half the time it's on high. That's 149 watts for each luminaire. But just under half the time they are only using 52 watts, this is a great way to save energy and money. Back to the lamp sources, what kind of reliability do we actually have with these? Well, we have HID which is the mercury vapor, the high pressure sodium, and the metal halide. These are long used technologies. The reliability is well known. They last a long time. They're very energy efficient. There are some color issues, the greeny blue of the mercury vapor, the yellow high pressure sodium and the unknown color shift of the metal halide. Will it be pink? Will it be blue?

Low pressure discharge, the fluorescent CFL and induction section, these are also long used technologies and their reliabilities are well known. The fact that they don't do well in the cold is often not discussed. LED's, these have not been around long enough to really know how reliable they are. It appears that the drivers or transformers or at least parts around the LED's can be more problematic than the LED's themselves. LED's don't turn off or die. They just fade away. The industry has chosen L70 or when the light coming out is 70 percent of the original output as the definition of end of life. It can be hard to tell when you hit 70 percent.

65 might not look too bad. One option might be to have luminaries with circuitry to turn the lamps off at L70, but this is not a standardized concept. Any type of luminaire, especially outdoor luminaries, will need some maintenance done. Dirt will reduce the amount of light coming out and may have a non uniform effect. The birds might only sit on one side of it and poop giving an off kilter distribution to the light. Luminaries should be cleaned regularly, but it isn't always done, especially with very long lived lamps, cleaning will help.

So here is my resources page, these are places to find out more information about lamps, the HID section is about the new rule making. We will be making HID lamps more efficient, the energy conservation standards for these lamps are technologically feasible and economically justified, so we will, should result in significant energy savings, so there's lots of information there.

And then the SSL section has more information than you can shake a stick at. We have tons of projects from the gateway demonstrations that high low photo that I showed you to the new municipal street light consortium to caliber which is my baby. We do consumer reports type testing. We buy products with secret shoppers and test them to find out what they really do. We have hundreds of reports with all kinds of LED products. We also test benchmarks, for example, those induction heads and the induction lamps in the cobra heads a few pages back were part of the caliper testing.

Please use the information we have gathered, it's here for everyone. So that's my schpiel on technology and I would like to hand off to Mr. Jeffrey Schwartz.

Jeffrey Schwartz: Thank you Heidi, and good afternoon everybody. I'm Jeffery Schwartz. I'm a senior manager at ICS international and I manage a team of lighting technical specialists and we' re one of the groups that will answer for the grantees some specific questions, help you out on specific projects and provide that assistance to you to make it easier for you to have a successful lighting project and on our call today I have with me Ken Little, Dan Rogers, and Kelly Seiger, they are three of the lighting specialists that answer individual questions requested from the grantees.

So with that, let me go on, and I have to say Heidi, thank you so much for a great job in talking about some of the technologies. I am going to take a little different look at this, although you mentioned many of the features and benefits, I'm going to step back and look more at the application, what you are doing and what is your project about and how do you have and how do you know that you are going to have a successful project that meets your needs? And there's three areas that currently we have been getting a lot of requests about from the grantees and that includes traffic signals, parking garages and street lights.

So those are the three areas that I'm going to concentrate on a little bit, talk about and talk about some of the things that you should be considering for these projects. Some of the issues that we found that are common and concerned are the project goal, the technology, which Heidi has spoken about, and meeting the desired results. How do you know when your project is actually going to achieve what you wanted from in the beginning when you came across the idea of the project to start with.

And I think an important thing here is to remember the difference between energy savings, which is a big part of this, maybe one of the key reasons you are doing a lighting project and Heidi spoke about some of the energy efficiency, the efficacy of some of these products, but there is also other goals, as an example, safety and security, recue vehicle accidents. Improved the pedestrian visibility, increased commerce in the example of perhaps, revitalization of a down town district or making it more attractive for people to drive into a parking lot in an area where there is commerce.

Create a particular look or a style, and again, in many of our downtown renovation projects that is a very big goal. Illuminate building facades and architectural details. And in some cases, simply responding to public demand, and whether that's because of safety or security or other reasons that people are just not happy with the existing lighting. So, let's start with energy. And one of the things that's important to do when you are looking at traffic signals and street lighting is to understand the __ structure that's there to begin with.

How are you paying for the energy that's used? Is it on a per unit basis? Is it per intersection, which it commonly is, with things like traffic signals. Or, is it metered? And understanding that will give you the opportunity to talk to your local utility company to understand if the changes that you are about to undergo will actually reap the benefits that you are looking for. And in many cases people are able to restructure that ____ depending on what's going on and the energy efficiency that's going to be installed.

Then there are the issues of maintenance and these are real savings. Heidi spoke when talking about some of the technologies, the difference in light. When you talk about perhaps a system that you currently have that has a 12,000 hour light and you move to something that ‘s maybe a 25, 35, or 45,000 hour light that's going to change the entire structure for maintenance. So, you want to consider the product life.

But you also want to consider how your existing contracts are set up. If you have a contract just as an example that says, okay, every year and a half, we are going to change the lightening, and you move to a light source with much longer live, you need to restructure that existing contract, because you are not going to have to change them as often. And again, that might mean that you are actually going to have a contract modification to what's being done and that includes the initial installation. And there are examples where municipalities have done this.

They've worked with their contractors responsible for maintenance and installation and said, okay we are going to replace everything at one time and then we are not going to need any services for a while, other than some emergencies, and able to restructure the way that things are done, so don't forget that when you are looking at energy efficiency as well.

So what do you need to know if you are going to be doing an outdoor lightening project? Well, you have to know what the applicable codes are. Very often individual municipalities will have their own codes. There maybe product standards that are important to what you're specifying, and then things like looking at light levels and ratios. It's very important when we get to street lighting not only to have a certain average foot candle, something that we can measure as the light level, but it's very important to consider what the ratio is.

We don't want to have a lot of light in one spot, very, very little light in another spot and if you just think for a moment about safety and security, you don't want to be walking from a very bright sport into a dark spot back into a bright spot, nor do you want to be driving under those lighting conditions. Heidi brought out a lot of the features and benefits of some of the technologies and it's important to understand that no one technology is right for every application. It's important to keep an open mind and understand what's available to you and what is right for your project.

In most cases, there's more than one option. So, always clarify why the suggested technology is the right one for your application. If somebody is claiming induction is the only thing you should look at or LED is the only thing you should look at or metal halides is the only thing you should look at, you might want to talk to a couple of other vendors to make sure that there isn't another technology that might be appropriate and then do a comparison.

You also want to look at manufacturers' claims versus supporting documentation. We've entered an era where new technologies are booming and that's a wonderful thing for everybody. There's some wonderful opportunities for significant energy savings, reduced maintenance cost, et cetera, but you want to make sure that the claims are realistic. Just as an example, while LED chips, may in fact, have an life of 100,000 hours, we know from testing that's already been done from DOE and other industry people that the LED chip within a source tucked into a lighting fixture is not typically going to have that 100,000 hour life, what is that LED source going to be in your fixture.

What is a reasonable claim? And Heidi spoke a little bit about the lumine depreciation and that's an important thing to look at. It's not when it burns out, but when is its useful life that you can count on before you are going to have to make a change?

There are several opportunities to help you in this and they are what we call standards or lists. And there's national product standards and a good example of this is traffic signal. I recently reviewed a request for quotations from one of the grantees for traffic signals and it was very, very well done. It was also very lengthy and obviously, somebody put a lot of effort into it. But in reality had the grantee just simply put in there that the traffic signal must meet the current standards and then put the burden on the supplier to show how it met the standards, it could have been significantly reduced, because we do have national standards that are set for the manufacture and import of traffic signals.

Now, it's still important to have that in there because you don't want to be the person buying what was left in there from 15 years ago that nobody sold. You want to make sure that what you are buying does meet the current standard. In certain categories of lighting today, there are Energy Star qualified fixtures, which means, that the product has undergone third party, independent testing in laboratories and has met standard conditions so you don't have to worry about what those criteria are. You just need to know that the product has met those standards.

There is also the design ___ consortium, the Department of Energy has been working with them for qualified product list on LED products. And certainly, in all cases you want to know what standards were used for testing. A great example of that, which was mentioned earlier was induction lighting. Induction lighting was definitely a variable source for outdoor lighting; however, currently the industry has no set standards for testing, so if one manufacturer says, well, my product is going to have a useful life of 100,000 hours and another manufacturer says their product is going to have a useful of 50,000 hours, they might actually be talking about the exact same product, but you need to know what standards were used for testing.

Was that on a three hour cycle? Was that on a six hour cycle, was that on a 12 hour cycle? When you move away from other products such as fluorescent and HID, the industry standards are very well set. LED, the standards are new, but there are standards out there for proper testing of those products, but you want to make sure that the products you're buying have been tested according to those standards.

So let's talk about some of these applications, I mentioned traffic signals. This is a proven technology. If you haven't already converted to LED traffic signals, you're missing the boat on some great opportunities for savings and longer life. These are colored LEDs and there's very little question at this point, we have been using it for many, many years, that the light and the lumen output make this a very good choice for your traffic signals and there's lots of opportunities if you haven't done that, don't limit yourself just to the traffic signal itself, but there is also what we call some of the pedestrian walk way signals, the man, the hand up in the air, those type of things, those are now all available in LED as well.

And there's good standards and it's a good use of LED technology. But we'll talk about some of these other applications, such as roadway and parking garages, as I said, for traffic signals, this is an example of a proven technology, at one point, this was an Energy Star labeled product. That label has been retired, because now, current federal standards exist and they use what was the Energy Start voluntary standards before that, so you should be referencing and making sure that if you are going to buy traffic signals, that the products you are buying meet the current federal standards.

Again, as I mentioned understand the ___ structure, it maybe worth your while, even if there is no energy savings directly to you in terms of your utility bill to go to LED traffic signals because the maintenance alone can often justify this conversion. And again, don't forget the crosswalk signals, the hand, the man, those are the other good applications for LED lighting and standards exist as well.

The resources for this are the Department of Energy federal standards, there is also the manual on uniform traffic control devices, which is put out by the US Department of Transportation and that is an excellent resource to cite in your request for proposal. And again, there may be state codes or regulations as well. Another tool that might be useful for you, which is free, and online is the Lighting Research Center which is part of _____ institute has a light cycle cost analysis that's an actual tool that you can go on, punch in what you have right now, what you are proposing to put in and it will give you an excellent job of giving you a cost analysis based on the lifecycle cost of how long the anticipated life of those traffic signals are.

It's a pretty long URL, so I suggest if you want to go there, just do a little Google search on the traffic signal life cycle cost and you should be able to get to that site. Let's talk about the parking garages. It's another very, very good source that's out there, okay? We see quite a few of the grantees going for this for municipal garages and other areas like this. Maybe it's part of your municipal building. Maybe it's part of the downtown area that the city of the county or somebody is actually running. What we have learned is that LED is working well when the proper fixture and location are chosen.

This is not always a simple one for one. You need to work with your vendor and your manufacturer and what's important here is when you change any light source from one to another, the distribution of the light changes. It ma change, in fact, much to the better. You might be able to light a space with less lighting fixtures. You might be getting better lighting in corners and crevices or in between cars where you didn't have it before, but without a careful analysis or a test mock up by the vendor, you're not going to know that and it's important to know. The last thing you want to do in an indoor parking garage is create a situation where you've saved energy, but you've made a situation that is not safe for the people using the space.

And do an analysis. We recently looked at a situation where actually high performance TA fixtures, which is an option a linear fluorescent option, made a lot more sense and it was more economical and it did a better job of lighting on a one for one basis and again, that may not always be the case. You may be better off with going for LED, but you want to consider that.

Rated life claims, make sure that the people making the claims can cite you a source, the required testing and compare results. What about warranty? LED is a new technology and maybe new companies are getting into the business and I'm not going to say that their products aren't better than some of the long established companies. But if you are going to get a warranty, as an example, for five years on an LED product, what is the value of that if you are talking to a company that's only been in business for one year? Are they going to be there to stand behind that warranty? So compare that.

And light levels, it's very important to know that when you are doing a parking garage, it's not supposed to be a consistent light level throughout. There's levels for entrance, exit, turn lanes, and the ambient levels based on illuminating engineering's ___ recommendations. So you don't want to necessarily have the exact same fixture in every place, or maybe you need more fixtures in one area than another, so consider that on the layout. If somebody is coming in and it just going to use the same fixture and the same quantity in all areas, they're not considering the quality and the safety issues of the garage.

And there are sources for this. This is right out of the ____ and it gives you a table to show what the ____ the light levels should be in the various areas of a parking garage, and what the uniformity is. You don't want too much of a difference in those light levels because again, that can create some security and safety issues. The resources for the parking garage is the illuminating engineer and ___ citing lighting recommendations. Now, you don't have to be lighting experts, you don't have to know all the details of these things. RP16 and other place with in the IAS documents do it, you can simply put a line into your request or when talking to your vendors say, we want to make sure that the end results of this lighting project meets all of the IAS recommendations.

So, please cite for us what your light levels are, what your ratios are and reference those to the IAS sources. The department of energy is still working on test procedures for what will become in this area, hopefully, the energy start specification. Heidi mentioned earlier there is also the DOE gateway studies on parking garages, ____ and as I mentioned earlier, the design lights consortium had a qualified list of products that have met specifications that they have been working on, along side of the department of energy. And I think these are a couple of good pictures of successful projects in parking garages, both of these happen to have been done with LED.

I also have to tell you I have also seen some really poor quality projects so it's important to do a mock up and take a look at the lights and make sure that where they are going to place them and them and the fixtures that they are going to use are going to give you the results that you will be happy with.

When we get to outdoor street lighting, I want to go back to back the project and the goal. Keep in mind that you are talking to your vendor suppliers, you are getting your bids on this, and people are making their recommendations, don't lose sight of your original intent of your project. What are you lighting? Why are you lighting it? Is it urban, suburban, or rural? As Heidi mentioned earlier, in some applications, high pressure sodium might be the best source for you.

It's not going to be the best source in a downtown revitalization project, but it might work in a rural area. There are federal standards for roadway. Will the new project meet that? The IAS recommendation, again, it's important to understand the ___ structure in some cases, and consider the maintenance savings as well as the maintenance contract. Who is responsible for maintaining? Can you save additional funds by not replacing as often. Do you need more poles or less poles? And I think in these pictures are a couple of good examples of really the different types of lighting that you would want. If you are going to do that down town revitalization project as in the picture on the right side, bottom right.

You are going to want something that not only lights the streets, you are going to want something that provides you with some walkway lighting and possibly will help enhance the visual and architectural features of the buildings in the area. Other things that you want to consider in the outdoor lighting, what about light trespass when you change a light source you maybe changing the distribution. Is the light going to be going in areas where you don't want the lighting. Pretty easy actually, to get the light where you want it. It's a little bit more complicated to make sure you're not getting light where you don't want it, for example, in your neighbors front yard. Light position is the light going up into the sky and that's important to consider. Glare issues. Too much light can be a problem. One very bright light fixture in the middle of a road can be very annoying to drivers at times. It may be better to have fewer fixtures spaced equally and provide a more uniform light. State codes and local codes, that especially with light trespass and light pollution that's becoming more and more common, the number of poles, the number of fixtures per pole. The light levels and again, very important, based in IAS recommendations, the light ratios.

Do we have uniform lighting or do we have a whole bunch of lighting in one spot and very little lighting in the next area. And there are other considerations, what about style and finish? Does it fit into the neighborhood? The area that you are lighting, will it enhance, perhaps commerce within your area. The light source, well, there is LED, there is pole start metal haloids, induction and other sources, probably available as well, so consider those and what's best for you.

It's probably also important to remember initial light levels versus maintain lumens. In all of these sources, the light you get on the first day that the fixture is installed, is going to be more than it is a year from now, two years from now and five years from now, so it's very important that you just don't look at things and say, wow, that looks great right now, but you want to know from your vendors, the people that you are working with, how much depreciation am I going to have over the next few years and what does that mean? When will I have to replace this to have the proper light levels?

And public reaction. Many municipalities have done a couple test sites, gotten input from people within the area and made some decisions based on how comfortable people were based on the new lighting and that's done with a test area. Resources for outdoor lighting, again, the illuminating engineering society, it's called RP16, that's something that you can reference. The energy star as those specifications are developed. The DOE gateway studies, the design lights consortium, the qualified product lists. I'd also like to make a recommendation for a source, but I want to add something to this, it's the Niserta How to Guide to Energy Efficient Street Lighting.

These are online, available at no cost. There are actually two guides, one for the technical people and engineers that are going to be specifying the other one is for elected and appointed officials, which may include some of our participants on this call today. It provides you with a concept and a list of questions that you might want to be asking before you actually purchase the actual light fixtures.

I have to point out that these are several years old and technologies have changed so when you look at the technology part, you have to understand that this did not include induction. This did not include LED, but the concept and the questions you want to ask and the reminders of why am I lighting this, how should I light it, where should I light it, those are still very, valid concepts that are put out in the publication and a brand new publication that's out from the lighting research center is their national lighting product information program LPIP. They've just issued last week a new street lighting issue, which is very good at looking at some of these various technologies and the features and benefits and actual products, so that's another source that you can take a look at.

And that's the end of my presentation, so I'm going to turn this back over.

Marian Fuller: Okay, so we are going to go over questions now. It looks like we only have one question right now in the queue, so if any other attendees have a question, you can type it into the question box and Jeffery and Heidi will address that. Also, I just want to point out that this is one webinar in a series of webinars, so we encourage everyone to join us again for upcoming webinars through the DOE Technical Assistance program. Okay.

So, the first question we have is, our outdoor garages lighting remains 24/7, what type of recommendations or technology is available that can assist us in reducing the lighting load?

Heidi Steward: I take it we're all going to leap in and answer here.

Marian Fuller: Yes.

Heidi Steward: This is Heidi and as I said before, there are a number of lighting controls you could use with this. You could use motion sensors, you could use time of use, probably time of use would make more sense for an indoor lighting garage, with a little bit of daylight control. I bet your top layer or you maybe have an upstairs layer that's completely upstairs, and so obviously you don't need the lights on all the time for that. Jeffery may have more suggestions in terms of getting a lighting design or an engineer involved in helping you determine specifically what you could use for that.

Jeffrey Schwartz: I would just add to that Heidi, that one of the first questions that would have to be asked in those situations is knowing what your existing technology is as part of it, so if you have an existing technology, for example, if it's a metal halide system that you currently have, it's not been upgraded as part of the project, you maybe limited in some of the technologies that can be used, for example, for a high load type of a system that Heidi had mentioned earlier in one of the parking lots, if you've got standard metal haloids ballasts that's probably not going to work.

You might need to change the ballast within the fixtures. However, when you do that, it would be savings from that ballast and lamp, as well as the savings that would come especially if they were old fixtures and they were not ____ metal halide, there could be energy savings per fixture as well as energy savings per control. So we have to know what would exist, what actually exists there now or what you are going to, if you are going to make a change.

Marian Fuller: Okay, thank you and the next question we have is from Andy and Andy asks, are all these lighting technologies dimmable?

Heidi Steward: Uh, the easy answer is no, they're not. In most cases, the older forms are not dimmable. There are some newer versions of dimmable with the fluorescent and one way, actually one way you can dim fluorescent is to have a two step fixture where you might have, say five lamps in it and two of them can be turned off separately so there is a high low version of dimming. LED's are dimmable. They don't care. They can, depending on how much power you give them, they can be high or low, depends on their driver or transformer.

So the answer is no, you have to check your specific type and look at it.

Marian Fuller: Okay. That's all the questions we have right now, so unless anybody has another question and wants to type it into the chat box, I want to thank our presenters today, Heidi and Jeffery and again, encourage everyone to take the evaluation survey and to attend our future webinars and with that, I believe our broadcast is ended, so thank you everyone for attending.