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Unit Heaters

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The Department of Energy (DOE) has regulated the energy efficiency level of unit heaters since 2008. Unit heaters are self-contained fan-type heaters designed to be installed within the heated space, such as rooms, garages, or factory floors. Unit heaters do not include warm air furnaces.

The current standard will save approximately 1.3 quads of energy and result in approximately $13.4 billion in energy bill savings for products shipped from 2008-2032. The standard will avoid about 66.8 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions of about 13.1 million automobiles.

Recent Updates | Standards | Test Procedures | Waiver, Exception, and Exemption Information | Statutory Authority | Historical Information | Contact Information

Recent Updates

There are no recent updates for this product.

Standards for Unit Heaters

Current Standard

For the purposes of this standard a unit heater is defined by 10 CFR 431.242. Unit heaters manufactured on or after August 8, 2008, and distributed in commerce, as defined by 42 U.S.C. 6291 (16), must meet the energy conservation standards specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 431.246, which states that it shall (a) be equipped with an intermittent ignition device; and (b) have power venting or an automatic flue damper. This information is also available in the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.

For further guidance or to submit questions related to the implementation of this standard, visit the Guidance and Frequently Asked Questions page.

Test Procedure for Unit Heaters

There are no test procedures for unit heaters because the energy conservation standard is a design standard.

Waivers, Exceptions, and Exemptions


Because there are no test procedures for unit heaters, the provisions in 10 CFR section 431 subpart V are not relevant.


DOE's Office of Hearings and Appeals has not authorized exception relief for unit heaters.

For information about obtaining exception relief, see 10 CFR part 1003.

State Exemptions to Federal Preemption

DOE has not exempted any state from this energy conservation standard. States may petition DOE to exempt a state regulation from preemption by the federal energy conservation standard. States may also petition DOE to withdraw such exemptions. For details, see 10 CFR 431 subpart V or 10 CFR 431 subpart W.

Statutory Authority

The current energy conservation standards for unit heaters are mandated by Part A, the ‘‘Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles’’ of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended. (42 U.S.C. 6291–6309) This equipment is treated as a covered product under Part A. (42 U.S.C. 6295(aa))

Historical Information

Congress designated unit heaters as covered products and created definitions and an energy conservation standard for them as part of the amendments to EPCA by the Energy Policy Act of 2005. DOE placed those in the Code of Federal Regulations in a final rule published on October 18, 2005. 70 FR 60407. On December 8, 2006, DOE issued a final rule to adopt definitions for intermittent ignition device, power venting, automatic flue damper, and automatic vent damper to clarify the terms in the energy conservation standard. 71 FR 71340.

Unit heaters were placed into EPCA in the section for residential products. DOE believes that this was unintentional because they are commercial products and placed the relevant regulations in section 431 with other commercial equipment.

Helpful Links and Contact Information

Helpful Links

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Contact information

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