United States Industrial Motor-Driven Systems Market Assessment: Charting a Roadmap to Energy Savings for Industry

    Paul E. Scheihing, U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program;
    Mitchell Rosenberg, Xenergy
    Mitchell Olszewski, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Chris Cockrill, U.S. Department of Energy
    Julia Oliver, U.S. Department of Energy

    ABSTRACT
    Over 13.5 million electric motors of 1 HP or greater convert electricity into useful work in U. S. industrial process operations. Industry spends over $33 billion (US) annually for electricity dedicated to electric motor-driven systems. Industrial motor system electricity consumption is 24% of all U.S. electricity sold in 1994. Because nearly 70% of all electricity used in industry is consumed by some type of motor-driven system, increases in the energy efficiency of existing motor systems will lead to dramatic nationwide energy savings.

    The United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Motor Challenge program is an industry/government partnership designed to help industry capture 9 billion kilowatt-hours per year of electricity savings by the year 2010. These energy savings spurred on by the Motor Challenge program will lead to a potential energy savings of 82 billion kwh/year within industry (65 in manufacturing and 17 in non-manufacturing—mining, agriculture, oil and gas extraction). This amount of energy savings:

    • will increase U.S. industry's overall motor system energy efficiency by 12 percent;

    • is equivalent to the amount of electricity consumed by the entire country of Venezuela for one year;

    • will reduce carbon emissions by 20 MMTCE per year which is equivalent to removing approximately 4 million cars from the road.

    The main goal of the Motor Challenge program is to work in partnership with industry to increase the market penetration of energy-efficient motor-driven systems. A key element in the Motor Challenge strategy is to encourage a "systems approach" to how motors, drives and motor-driven equipment are engineered, specified, and maintained by industry. This represents a new way of looking at motor efficiency and the potential for energy and cost savings. The program focuses much of its resources on a few key industrial sectors which are participating in DOE's Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy.(1) The IOF sectors are: Forest Products, Steel, Aluminum, Metal Castings, Chemicals, Glass, Mining, and Agriculture. The Motor Challenge program also targets Water Supply and Wastewater energy savings opportunities - - both industrial and municipal. The Forest Products, Steel and Mining sectors are the leading industries with which Motor Challenge is partnering to develop energy savings strategies, actions, and results. These industry partnership activities are described in this paper.

    (1) The DOE Industries of the Future strategy creates partnerships between U.S. industry, government, and supporting laboratories and institutions to accelerate technology research, development, and deployment. Led by the DOE Industrial Technologies Program within the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Industries of the Future strategy is being implemented in eight energy- and waste-intensive industries: Forest Products, Steel, Aluminum, Metal Castings, Chemicals, Glass, Mining, and Agriculture.

    Paper Presented at the International Workshop on Industrial Energy Efficiency Policies: Understanding Success and Failure; June 10-12, 1998; Utrecht, The Netherlands

    A market assessment was commissioned by the Motor Challenge program in 1995 to better understand the characteristics of the installed population of motor systems in the manufacturing sector; to understand end user motor system purchase and maintenance practices; and to develop strategic information so that the Program could work with industry to target the best opportunities in key end use sectors. This paper is an overview of the results of the market assessment which lay the groundwork to a Roadmap to Energy Savings.(2)

    Introduction—General Characteristics of the U.S. Industrial Motor Systems Energy Consumption
    In 1994, U.S. industry consumed 691 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity in process motor-driven systems; 553 billion kwh for the manufacturing sector and 138 billion kwh for non-manufacturing (ie., mining, agriculture, oil and gas extraction, etc.). Motors for industrial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning will add an estimated 68 billion kwh/year in motor system energy use. These motor systems were not studied as part of the market assessment.

    Application Energy Distribution
    As mentioned, in the US industrial sector, more than 70 percent of all electricity consumption involves motor-driven systems; of this amount of energy, 59 percent goes to some type of fluid movement or compression system, such as pumps, fans, blowers, and compressed air systems with the remaining amount going to other motor system usage (see Table 1).

    PRELIMINARY DATA

    Table 1 - Manufacturing Motor System Energy Characteristics by Application (3)
    Type of Application Motor System Electricity Consumption (109 kwh/year), 1994 % of Total Manufacturing Sector Motor System Energy

    Pump Systems

    149

    27

    Compressed Air Systems

    100

    18

    Fan Systems

    77

    14

    Material Movement/Handling

    33

    6

    Other Material Processing

    133

    24

    Industrial Refrigeration

    33

    6

    Other

    28

    5

    Total Manufacturing

    553

    (2) This paper presents preliminary data that will be presented in final form in a report to be released by Oak Ridge National Lab in the Fall of 1998.

    (3) These data are for the manufacturing sector only; application data for the non-manufacturing sectors is limited, and therefore, conclusions on motor system application energy usage can not be made.

    Industry Sector Motor System Energy Distribution
    Motor system energy use is highly concentrated by industry sector - - see Table 2. Note that over 60 percent of motor system energy is within the top 6 sectors of which 4 of the 6 are participating the Industries of the Future initiative.

    PRELIMINARY DATA

    Table 2 - Motor System Energy Characteristics by Industry Sector
    Industrial Sector Motor System Electricity Consumption

    (106 kwh/year), 1994

    Industry of the Future (IOF) Sector;

    Motor Challenge Targeted Sector (MC)

    % Total Industrial Motor System Electricity Cumulative % of Total Motor System Electricity

    Chemicals & Allied Products

    140,289

    IOF

    20.2

    20.2

    Paper & Allied Products

    120,078

    IOF, MC

    17.4

    37.6

    Water Supply/Wastewater/

    Irrigation

    54,652

    MC

    7.9

    45.5

    Food Processing

    51,587

    7.5

    53.0

    Mining

    39,625

    IOF, MC

    5.7

    58.7

    Steel

    35,292

    IOF, MC

    5.2

    63.9

    Petroleum & Coal Products

    33,750

    4.9

    68.8

    Rubber & Misc. Plastics

    32,356

    4.7

    73.5

    Oil & Gas Extraction

    29,866

    4.3

    77.8

    Textiles

    16,850

    2.4

    80.2

    Transportation Equip.

    14,908

    2.2

    82.4

    Agriculture Production

    13,452

    IOF

    1.9

    84.3

    Aluminum

    11,600

    IOF

    1.7

    86.0

    Lumber & Wood Products

    8,608

    IOF

    1.2

    87.2

    Glass

    5,784

    IOF

    0.8

    88.0

    Metal Casting

    5,268

    IOF

    0.8

    88.8

    Cement

    3,012

    0.4

    89.2

    All Other Sectors

    74,286

    10.8

    100.0

    Total

    691,263

     

     

    * shaded sectors are those that Motor Challenge is initially partnering with most intensively at this time.

    Industries of the Future (IOF) sectors account for 53% of total industrial motor system energy consumption. The initial target sectors of Motor Challenge—Paper and Allied Products, Steel, Mining, and Water Supply/Wastewater—account for 36% of total industrial motor system energy consumption.

    Concentration of Motor System in Large Plants
    Within the Industries of the Future sectors, less than 2,000 "Large Plants" (those with greater than 250 employees) account for almost 35 percent of total industrial motor system energy—see Table 3 (there are over 120,000 plants in the U.S. with greater than 20 employees). This information is leading the DOE Industrial Technologies IOF and Motor Challenge program strategy to target large plants so as to have maximum impact in achieving energy saving results in the near and long term. The larger plants will serve as Showcase examples for other plants in industry to replicate the success stories developed.

    PRELIMINARY DATA

    Table 3 - Motor System Energy Concentrated in "Large Plants", Industries of the Future Sectors
    Industry Sector Motor System Electricity Consumption in Large Plants

    (106 kwh/year), 1994

    # of Large Plants Average Motor System Electricity Consumption per Large Plant (106 kwh/year) % Total Industrial Motor System Energy for Large Plants in Sector

    Chemical & Allied Products

    95,487

    846

    112.9

    13.8

    Paper & Allied Products

    85,906

    255

    336.9

    12.4

    Mining

    17,735

    185

    95.9

    2.6

    Steel

    24,680

    197

    125.3

    3.6

    Agriculture

    NA

    NA

    NA

    NA

    Aluminum

    8,111

    100

    81.1

    1.2

    Glass

    5,768

    188

    30.7

    0.8

    Metal Casting

    3,684

    200

    18.4

    0.5

    Total Industries of the Future "Large Plants"

    241,171

    1,971

    122.4

    34.9

    Total Industry

    691,263

    Moving Towards a Systems-Oriented Solutions
    Evidence the Market is Changing
    In the early to mid 1990s, the majority of public and private-sector efforts to improve motor system energy efficiency focused on the motor, rather than other individual motor-driven system components or, more importantly, on the system as a whole. There is evidence in the past 2 to 4 years, however, that change is occurring in the market, as influenced by both private and public sector activities to focus more on system-based solutions. Examples of these activities, include:

    • People are much more focused on motor systems than just on the motor alone. Although hard to measure, people and private sector companies, in general, are more focused on motor system opportunities as part of their promotion of energy efficiency products and services to customers, or for end users, to achieve overall productivity gains in their manufacturing plants.
    • Training curriculum has been developed by the Energy Center of Wisconsin, the Hydraulic Institute, and Motor Challenge that educates industry on fluid system optimization principles—pump and fan systems training.
    • Motor Challenge tools, such as MotorMaster+ and other technical information are being used by thousands of people as provided directly by Motor Challenge, or by the 170 Motor Challenge Allied Partners that disseminate Motor Challenge information with the support of the Program (Allied Partners are non end users, such as original equipment manufacturers, distributors, utilities, State energy agencies, engineering firms, etc.). Likewise, MotorMaster+ software has been greatly upgraded to help the user to analyze system effects when installing a new motor (e.g., putting an energy efficient motor on a centrifugal load).
    • The Compressed Air Challenge has been developed recently as a result of Motor Challenge efforts to unite participants in the compressed air system market. The Compressed Air Challenge is looking at all varieties of opportunities to improve compressed air system efficiency, and are developing information and training curriculum to support plant operation staff to target these opportunities.
    • The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has developed the software program called ASDMaster. ASDMaster helps a person designing and purchasing an electronic AC adjustable speed drive to choose and specify the best ASD for their application. System effects are analyzed with the program.
    • Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstrations are proving that system energy savings opportunities are tremendous and average around 30 percent (see section later in this paper).
    • Companies such as 3M, Dupont, Johnson & Johnson are promoting system-based solutions within their companies.

    The Systems Approach
    A "systems approach" seeks to increase the efficiency of electric motor systems by shifting the focus from individual components and functions to total system performance (see Figure 1). When applying the systems approach process system design and manufacturing best practices seek to optimize performance in the entire process system, and then on selecting components and control strategies which best match the new, reduced process load. The steps involved in accomplishing a system optimization would involve: characterizing the process load requirements; minimizing distribution losses; matching the driven equipment to load requirements; controlling the process load in the most optimal manner considering all cycles of the process load; and properly matching the motor and drive to each other as well as the load.

    Process and mechanical and electrical feedback enter a three-phase input power system with power, controls, motor, coupling, load, and process.
    Figure 1: Motor System Diagram

    Motor Challenge is Demonstrating the System Approach Pays
    Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstration case studies provide examples of how companies have undertaken improvements in their electric motor systems and have benefitted from verified energy savings and related improvements in waste reduction and productivity. DOE has sought Motor Challenge industry partners who are willing to participate as Showcase Demonstrations. In exchange for technical assistance and the opportunity to try out new technologies, Showcase participants must be willing to undertake detailed monitoring and analysis that will help all other industry partners understand how to make their operations run better. To date, 13 Showcases have been completed and have saved in aggregate $2.2 million US at an average payback of approximately 1.5 years (see Table 4). Even more impressive is the average system efficiency improvement of 33% for all 13 projects. These Showcase examples prove that there are large opportunities available to industry with efficient motor systems. Additionally, the case studies generated from these projects are in large demand by trade magazines for publication; by Motor Challenge Allied Partners (suppliers, utilities, distributors, engineering firms, etc.); and by industry end users.

    Motor and Motor System Energy Savings
    The market assessment estimated energy savings that are economic (less than 3 year payback). Only savings in the industrial sector were estimated. The results below do not include improvements to commercial building motor system applications. There were three savings analysis areas:

    New energy efficient motor purchases—Energy savings from the purchase of new energy efficient motors, driven by both the new Energy Policy Act (EPACT) motor regulation and purchases of energy efficient motors for applications that are not covered by EPACT.

    Improved motor management practices—Energy savings from better management of currently installed motors with improved repair practices, more properly matching motor size to the driven load, and the adoption of motor management best practices.

    Improved motor system optimization—Energy savings from overall system optimization from better matching fluid handling devices (e.g., pumps) to the load, and implementing more optimal control strategies and technologies (adjustable speed drives) to accommodate fluctuating loads.

    Table 4 - Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstration Results
    Showcase Demo

    Company Site

    Type of Plant Energy Savings

    kWh/Year

    System Savings, % Annual Cost Savings, $US Payback on Investment, Years

    General Dynamics

    Metal Fabrication, Metal Plating

    451,778

    38

    $68,000

    1.5

    3M Company

    Laboratory Facility

    10,821,000

    6

    $823,000

    1.9

    Peabody Coal

    Coal Processing

    103,826

    20

    $6,230

    2.5

    Strohs Brewing

    Beer brewing

    473,000

    52

    $19,000

    0.1

    City of Milford

    Municipal sewage pumping

    36,096

    17

    $2,960

    5.4

    Louisiana-Pacific

    Strand board

    2,431,800

    50

    $85,100

    1.0

    City of Trumbull

    Municipal sewage pumping

    31,875

    44

    $2,614

    4.6

    Nisshinbo California

    Textiles

    1,600,000

    59

    $100,954

    1.3

    Greenville Tubing

    Stainless steel tube fabrication

    148,847

    34

    $77,266

    0.5

    Alumax

    Primary aluminum production

    3,350,000

    12

    $103,736

    0.0

    OXY-USA

    Oil field pumping

    54,312

    12

    $5,362

    0.5

    City of Long Beach

    Municipal waste incineration

    3,661,200

    34

    $329,508

    0.8

    Bethlehem Steel

    Fan system on basic oxygen furnace

    15,500,000

    50

    $542,600

    2.1

    Total/Average

    38,663,734

    33

    $2,166,330

    1.5

    Energy Savings from New Energy Efficient Motor Purchases
    As of October, 1997, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 motor regulation (EPACT) requires that general purpose, polyphase, single speed, squirrel-cage induction motors manufactured for sale in the US and rated from 1-200 HP meet minimum efficiency standards. In addition to these standards, EPACT also requires standardized testing procedures and labeling. [EPACT does not require users of motors to replace currently installed standard efficient motors with energy efficient models, but rather only requires the purchase of some categories of new motors to be energy efficient]. Table 5 shows the projected energy savings from motors covered by EPACT(1 to 200HP); the incremental energy savings when EPACT motors are upgraded to higher efficiencies suggested by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) levels (above EPACT levels); and the energy savings for upgrading motors not covered by EPACT that are above 200HP. These energy savings do not include the savings available from energy efficient motor upgrades in commercial building facility applications.

    PRELIMINARY DATA

    Table 5 - Savings from New Energy Efficient Motor Purchases for the U.S. Manufacturing Sector
    Energy Savings

    (106 kwh/year)

    % Total Manufacturing Motor System Energy Savings

    Savings from upgrading motors covered by EPACT to EPACT level efficiencies

    7,286

    11.1

    Savings from upgrading motors covered by EPACT beyond EPACT efficiencies to CEE level efficiencies

    4,303

    6.5

    Savings from upgrading motors not covered by EPACT (greater than 200 HP) to maximum efficiency levels currently available

    4,579

    7.0

    Total Savings

    16,168

    24.6

    Improved Motor Management Practices
    Table 6 shows the energy savings from improved motor management practices and systems within the manufacturing plant.

    PRELIMINARY DATA

    Table 6 - Savings from Improved Motor Management Practices for the U.S. Manufacturing Sector
    Energy Savings (106 kwh/year) % Total Manufacturing Motor System Energy Savings

    Savings from improved motor repair and rewind practices

    1,001

    1.5

    Savings from improved sizing and design of motors and drives to each other and the applied driven load

    5,000

    7.6

    Total Savings

    6,001

    9.1

    Improved Motor System Optimization
    Table 7 shows the savings from optimizing motor systems using a systems approach.

    PRELIMINARY DATA

    Table 7 - Savings from Improved Motor System Optimization for the U.S. Manufacturing Sector
    Motor System Energy Saving Area Energy Savings (106 kwh/year) % Total Manufacturing Motor System Energy Savings

    Savings from improved pump system optimization

    10,838

    16.5

    Savings from improved pump system control (including ASDs)

    10,838

    16.5

    Savings from improved fan system optimization

    3,245

    4.9

    Savings from improved fan system control (including ASDs)

    1,857

    2.8

    Savings from improved compressed air system optimization

    7,644

    11.8

    Savings from improved compressed air system control (including ASDs)

    1,911

    2.9

    Savings from optimization and better control of non-fluid systems (e.g., material handling, movement and processing devices)

    7,207

    11.0

    Total Savings

    43,540

    66.3

    As Figure 2 shows two-thirds of the manufacturing motor system savings are system related, demonstrating that management decisions and technical actions that support a systems approach at the corporate and plant level will be the key to achieving large scale energy efficiency improvement in manufacturing motor systems.

    Manufacturing Motor Systems save system optimization 65%, energy-efficient motors 15%, and motor management 20%
    Figure 2 - Breakout of Manufacturing Motor System Savings

    Targeting the Opportunities
    As mentioned, Motor Challenge is targeting the industry sectors of Forest Products (especially pulp and paper), Steel, Mining, and Water Supply/Wastewater. Figure 3 and 4 show the potential energy savings within the pulp and paper and steel industries, respectively. Medium to large-sized pump systems are the prime opportunity in pulp and paper, whereas large fan and compressed air systems are the target within the steel industry.

    Pulp and Paper motor system continue to save with each passing year.

    The Steel industry continues to save with regards to motor savings

    Figure 3 - Pulp and paper industry motor system savings (Million kwh/year)

    Figure 4 - Steel industry motor savings (Million kwh/year)

    Key Motor Challenge Industry Partnerships
    Motor Challenge relies on working within the established industry channels to develop strategies that will most effectively influence the industrial end users at a variety of decision-making levels. The following are summaries of key Motor Challenge industry partnerships:

    Pulp and Paper: TAPPI is the technical professional society of the pulp and paper industry. As a Motor Challenge Allied Partner TAPPI lends credibility to Motor Challenge's standing with pulp and paper company's technical staff. Even more importantly, TAPPI provides a great deal of leverage for the Motor Challenge. TAPPI is the world's largest technical association for individuals and companies in the paper, packaging, converting and related industries, with more than 33,000 members in over 70 countries (most members are in the U.S.). Motor Challenge products are being distributed by TAPPI to members, and joint training sessions on motor management, adjustable speed drives, and pump system optimization have already been conducted or are being planned.

    Steel: DOE-ITP and Motor Challenge have begun to work with the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers (AISE). Efforts will begin to develop a partnership similar to the TAPPI/Motor Challenge partnership to deliver technical information and training through the AISE organization. Likewise, the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has a long-standing partnership with ITP in the area of advanced steel making technology development.

    Mining: Recently, the National Mining Association (NMA) became the eighth industry sector to partner with ITP in the Industries of the Future initiative. NMA will become a Motor Challenge Allied Partner. A strategy will be developed with NMA to deploy energy efficient motor system technology and information to the U.S. mining industry.

    Water Supply/Wastewater: Working with a variety of organizations, including the American Water Works Association (AWWA), Motor Challenge has targeted this motor system energy intensive industry. Over the past two years, a training workshop series focusing both on motor management and pump system optimization principles has been deployed in a variety of States in the U.S (e.g., California and New York). All training sessions have been very highly attended and have been well received. AWWA regional chapters are now being targeted as a mechanism to get broader replication of the education curriculum developed and deployed.

    Conclusions: Putting the Whole Strategy Together and Moving Forward
    Showing the overall value of motor system efficiency to the key industries, along with developing the overall outreach strategy in unison with these sectors will be the key achieving results. Motor Challenge is currently developing a plan that will both complement the IOF R&D portfolio being developed and that meets the needs of any individual industry or company. A multi-step approach is being developed by Motor Challenge with industry with the following elements:

    • instituting a cooperative training and communications program with an industry that helps plant people become more proficient in the use of new tools and best practices; articles will be developed to reach a broad audience; industry groups will be networked to develop mutual interests (e.g., link the pulp and paper industry (TAPPI) to the pump industry (Hydraulic Institute)).
    • develop more industry specific showcase demonstrations; work with groups such as TAPPI to develop benchmarking information so that plant operators can determine the best opportunities in their respective pulp and paper mills.
    • develop and provide easy access to pertinent information specific to an industry.
    • undertaking marketing campaigns with original equipment manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, and end users to increase attention to the opportunities—at all levels from plant operations staff to CEOs.
    • provide recognition to the people that are getting results with awards; develop articles and communications about these people through various media to promote their successes.

    Most importantly, Motor Challenge will develop its strategy so as to add value to the Industries of the Future portfolio of emerging technology, technical information and tools so assist U.S. industry to be more energy efficient and competitive with reduced emissions and waste released to the environment.